Dufek Receives 2010 Hisashi Kuno Award

Josef Dufek and Alison Rust each received the Hisashi Kuno Award at the 2010 AGU Fall Meeting, held 13–17 December in San Francisco, Calif. The award recognizes “accomplishments of junior scientists who make outstanding contributions to the fields of volcanology, geochemistry, and petrology.”

Citation

dufek_josefIt gives me great pleasure to introduce one of the Kuno Award recipients for 2010: Joe Dufek. Because his research work and his reputation precede him, most of you already know of Joe, which makes my task easier. Barely 4 years from completion of his doctoral work with George Bergantz at the University of Washington, Seattle, Joe has already published important and seminal work in the fields of volcanology and petrology. He’s written on a wide diversity of subjects including particle—particle collisions and their effects on flow in volcanic conduits; the interaction between mafic dike injection and melting of the lower crust; multiphase transport processes of pyroclastic flows including the tracking and fate of individual phenocrysts; and thermomechanical coupling of crustal dynamics to magma chamber processes. Throughout, Joe has demonstrated that he is one of those rare Earth scientists who not only can recognize an important geologic problem but also knows how to investigate that problem in the field and how to creatively formulate and execute a model that contains enough physics and chemistry to generate results that are testable against observation. Joe has raised the bar in modeling pyroclastic eruption dynamics, and through the Kuno Award, the volcanology, geochemistry, and petrology (VGP) community has recognized the importance and relevance of his work in understanding the rock record. But, in addition to his research record, Joe is also well known for his modest character, his generosity of intellect, and his enthusiasm for sharing in collaborative research. Fellow VGP members, it is my honor and privilege to present Joe Dufek, this year’s corecipient of the Hisashi Kuno Award.

Mark S. Ghiorso, OFM Research, Inc., Seattle, Wash.

Response

Thank you, Mark, the Kuno committee, and the VGP community. I feel very fortunate. I have had the chance to interact with many excellent scientists over the past decade, and I really owe them a debt of gratitude.

While I was an undergraduate at the University of Chicago, Ray Pierrehumbert introduced me to the world of fluid dynamics. I also had the great fortune to meet Fred Anderson and started working in his lab. I cannot thank Fred enough for his patient explanations. Through Fred I was given the opportunity to interact with many excellent people at a young age, including Paul Wallace and Youxue Zhang.

During graduate school at the University of Washington, George Bergantz taught me a great deal about science and multiphase flow as we examined problems in the lower crust and eruption dynamics. While in Seattle, Mark Ghiorso, Olivier Bachmann, Ron Merrill, Kari Cooper, Stu McCallum, and Chris Newhall all were very influential to me, as were my excellent graduate cohorts.

I had the great luck to join the Miller postdoctoral program at University of California, Berkeley following graduate school, and my continuing collaboration with Michael Manga has been very fulfilling. Berkeley also introduced me to several amazing young scientists, two of whom, Chris Huber and Leif Karlstrom, have become close collaborators.

Over the past years I have had the opportunity to collaborate with many people who have taught me much, including Guil Gualda, Mark Ghiorso, Mark Jellinek, Bill Leeman, Dennis Geist, Karen Harpp, and Rob Lillis, among others. My colleagues at Georgia Institute of Technology have been absolutely supportive, and I thank my students who work hard and have much potential.

Mostly, I want to thank my parents and brother for their support, and my wife, Carol Paty, who has learned more geology and carried more rocks than she probably bargained for.

Josef Dufec, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

Kelley Receives 2011 Hisashi Kuno Award

Katherine Kelley received the Hisashi Kuno Award at the 2011 AGU Fall Meeting, held 5–9 December in San Francisco, Calif. The award recognizes “accomplishments of junior scientists who make outstanding contributions to the fields of volcanology, geochemistry, and petrology.”

Citation

kelley_katherineFresh out of Macalester College, Katherine Kelley was inspired to move to Kansas, ironically, on the promise of a sea­going opportunity: drilling the world’s oldest oceanic crust. From this experience, Katie took a leadership role in studying seafloor alteration, became an expert in laser ablation inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and wrote a definitive paper on the chemical fractionation in the U-Th-Pb system from the ridge to the subducting slab and beyond. This work is Katie’s best cited, but it is not what she is best known for. Instead, during most of her time at Boston University, where she finished her degree, and at the Carnegie Institution of Washington (Department of Terrestrial Magnetism), where she did a postdoc, Katie worked on measuring the water contents of arc magmas. She found simple relationships between the water content of the mantle, the extent to which it melts, and the distance from the trench. This is the hallmark of Katie’s work; the results seem so obvious after the fact. She has gone on to unravel one of the great knots in our field: how temperature, pressure, and water content contribute to magma generation beneath arcs.

Even with these major contributions, many consider Katie’s most important work her most recent. In a dynamic partnership with Elizabeth Cottrell, Katie developed the micro-XANES technique to make the first coupled measurements of H2O and Fe3+/FeT in the same glass and melt inclusions. Of course, it is common knowledge that arc magmas are wetter and more oxidized than mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB), but Katie and Liz’s data are the first to show that these quantities relate. H2O and fO2 are the demons in petrology, and Katie has spent her short career on these elusive variables, finding remarkable relationships between them.

Terry A. Plank, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, N. Y.

Response

Thank you, Terry, for your kind words, and thanks to AGU and the Volcanology, Geochemistry, and Petrology section for this tremendous honor. Like that of any of us, my scientific work has grown from great collaborations, and I stand here on the shoulders of many generous and brilliant mentors and colleagues, with whom I share this terrific recognition.

My early interest in geology was fostered by my father, Phil Kelley, a cartographer and lifelong member of AGU. Great field experiences, from my undergraduate years at Macalester College with Karl Wirth in the Duluth Complex to a Fulbright year exploring Philippine volcanoes with Jun Yumul and Toti Corpuz, cemented my interests in volcanoes and the processes that create magma.

When I started my Ph.D. with Terry Plank, Terry herself was winning young scientist medals, and she was so vibrant and enthusiastic, I knew she would lead me to great scientific experiences. I also enjoyed countless productive interactions with Ed Stolper, Tim Grove, and Steve Parman that led to new models of hydrous melting beneath arcs and back-arc basins.

As a postdoc at the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, I developed new perspectives on magmatic volatiles with Erik Hauri and had the greatest arguments with Paul Silver, Mark Behn, and Brian Savage, my supportive and loving husband. My colleagues at the Graduate School of Oceanography, particularly Steve Carey, Chris Kincaid, Rob Pockalny, and Art Spivack, now enrich my daily life with new perspectives.

Six years ago, Liz Cottrell and I had a lucky conversation at Carnegie’s lunch club, which ultimately opened up a new frontier in geochemistry for us: accessing the key petrological variable of oxygen fugacity at microscopic spatial scales. Our work together has helped me grow as a scientist in new ways, and part of this award truly belongs to Liz as well.

Katherine A. Kelley, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett

Dasgupta Receives 2012 Hisashi Kuno Award

Rajdeep Dasgupta received the Hisashi Kuno Award at the 2012 AGU Fall Meeting, held 3–7 December in San Francisco, Calif. The award recognizes “accomplishments of junior scientists who make outstanding contributions to the fields of volcanology, geochemistry, and petrology.”

Citation

dasgupta_rajdeepRaj got his M.S. at Jadavpur University in India in 2000 and then, from 2001, spent 5 years at University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, for his Ph.D. He arrived at Rice University as an assistant professor in 2008. Four years later, he has set the world on fire. He has more than 30 publications, more than 1000 citations, an H-index of 17, and three first-authored papers with more than 100+ citations, along with several more that seem to be on their way to hitting that 100 mark.

He is the world’s expert on the deep carbon (C) cycle, from the effects of carbon dioxide on deep mantle melting and the origin of the asthenosphere to the solubility of reduced C in magmas and the core, with implications for early differentiation processes on Earth and Mars. He and his students have made fundamental contributions on the role of melt-rock reaction in generating magma compositions similar to what we see in some ocean islands. He presented a creative way of using major elements in magmas to constrain the composition of the magma source region in the mantle. He is making new headway into the deep sulfur (S) cycle with new models for S solubility on basalts of Martian relevance as well as the solubility of reduced S species in high-pressure aqueous systems relevant to Earth, the latter challenging traditional views of the deep S cycle. He has developed a state-of-the-art experimental facility at Rice University, complete with several piston cylinders and a multianvil apparatus. With Raj and his fantastic students and postdocs, his lab is one of the most productive and creative in the world. All of this has been recognized by other awards: the Packard, the Clarke Medal from the Geochemical Society, and the National Science Foundation CAREER award.

But, to me, the most important aspect of Raj is not all of these metrics and great accomplishments at such a young age but rather the impact he has made on my own research and that of the department. His ideas, thought process, and strong work ethic have shaped our young and growing “solid” Earth group here at Rice. His fugacity, or effective pressure, extends far beyond his already impressive H-index, changing the views of all who happen to pass near his sphere of influence. He has already started to build a legacy, and for this reason, the Kuno award is most fitting.

CIN-TY A. LEE, Rice University, Houston, Tex.

Response

Ever since I started pursuing research, AGU Fall Meetings have been the gathering to feel part of something grand. Hence to be recognized by such an organization is a real honor. Thank you, ­Cin-Ty, for the generous introduction. I’m really glad to have received the citation from a great colleague.

My scientific curiosity was first nurtured in Jadavpur University. I would specially mention Somnath Dasgupta, Pulak Sengupta, Pradip Bose, and the late Prasanta Bhattacharya for teaching me what petrology is. After finishing my education in India, all I knew was that I wanted to pursue research in petrology, but not much beyond that; to follow the career paths of Mainak Mookherjee and Saswata Majumder at that time was key, which led me to come to graduate school in the United States.

Minnesota was cold, but warm interactions and the tutelage of many at the geology and geophysics department made my stay there worthwhile. While pursuing a Ph.D., I learned from Marc Hirschmann how to ask important questions. During my postdoc days at Lamont, I learned from the maestro of high-pressure experiments, Dave Walker. I also have been fortunate to receive selfless encouragement from a number of you. I would especially mention Jackie Dixon, Stan Hart, Al Hofmann, Bruce Watson, Peter Kelemen, Claude Herzberg, Mainak Mookherjee, and Greg Hirth in this regard.

In 2008, Rice gave me the platform from which to launch a research program. But, more important, it gave me great colleagues, including Cin-Ty Lee and Adrian Lenardic, among others. I have also been kept busy by an exciting group of students and postdocs. Kyusei, Veronique, Justin, Ananya, Megan, Han, Shuo, Christine, Sébastien, Jasmine, and now Peter, thank you all for including me in your life experiments.

I would not be here without the encouragement and love of my grandparents, the late Santwana and Professor Lokaranjan Dasgupta; my parents; my brother; and my extended family. And I am very happy that my father is here with me to join the celebration. Finally, without my wife Sushmita, I would not be able to embark on this voyage of scientific discovery and ­self-​­discovery, so this award is as much hers as mine.

Rajdeep Dasgupta, Rice University, Houston, Tex.

Langmuir Receives 1996 Bowen Award

The 1996 N. L. Bowen Award was presented to Charles Langmuir at the AGU Fall Meeting on December 16, 1996. The award is given by the Volcanology, Geochemistry, and Petrology section for a single outstanding contribution to volcanology, geochemistry, or petrology made during the preceding 5 years. The award citation and Langmuir’s response are given here.

Citation

langmuir_charlesh“It gives me great pleasure to have the honor of introducing Charles Langmuir as the 1996 recipient of AGU’s Norman L. Bowen Award. Charlie is a fitting recipient of this award. Like Norman Bowen, he is a great scientist whose origins go back to Canada and one who has keen insights into both broad- and fine-scale processes of igneous petrogenesis. As a leading petrologist-geochemist of our time, Charlie distinguishes himself by his quantitative approach to major and trace element studies of basalts.

“Charlie graduated from Harvard in 1973 with an honors degree in the history of science and geology. Following this, he went on to receive his Ph.D. from the State University of New York, Stony Brook, in 1980, under the guidance of Gil Hanson. After a year as a postdoctoral fellow at Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, he joined the faculty of Columbia University and is now their Arthur Storke Professor.

“A hallmark of Charlie’s approach is that he begins by making a simple geochemical observation and proceeds through quantitative modeling to reach startling results with far-reaching implications. Amazingly, it was Charlie’s first published paper where he immediately had an impact on his field. In this paper, on basalts from the French-American Mid-Ocean Undersea Study (FAMOUS) area of the mid-Atlantic Ridge, he helped us all to begin to understand the realistic complexities of melting processes with the concepts of incremental melting and residual porosity. Charlie reasoned that these basalts, which possessed crossing rare earth element patterns and constant ratios of isotope and highly incompatible trace elements, were produced by dynamic melting,’ where melting and melt segregation, with partial melt retention, occur continuously during adiabatic ascent.

“Charlie is an innovator who thinks deeply and unconventionally about the way nature works. While many others were projecting into Ca-Mg-Al-Si phase space, Langmuir demonstrated that major element compositions could be treated in other ways with new ideas to be gained. Together with Gil Hanson, he used a novel premise that major element variations in multicomponent magmatic systems could be modeled using the same quantitative methods involving distribution coefficients that are successfully applied to trace elements, with the added constraint of stoichiometry. Charlie later presented a more generalized approach with his widely used liquid line of descent modeling program (1990), originally written for one atmosphere crystallization and more recently adapted for modeling crystallization at higher pressures (1992).

“Charlie has clearly been a great inspiration to our next generation of petrologists and geochemists; I will give but three of many examples. First, working jointly with students Emily Klein and Terry Plank, he led a major revolution in thinking about the petrogenesis of mid-ocean-ridge basalts. Starting with the now classic 1987 paper by Klein and Langmuir, they showed that regional averages of basalt chemistry correlate with both the depth and crustal thickness of the ridge axis from which the basalts are recovered. Global correlations in key chemical parameters (e.g., Na8.0 and Fe 8.0) were shown to reflect a fundamental association between the extent of melting and the pressure of melting, which in turn appears to result from regional variations in subsolidus mantle temperature. In 1989, Charlie revealed for us the important consequences of in situ crystallization in a boundary layer using simple and elegant quantitative modeling. Later, with Terry Plank, he evaluated the effects of melting regime and mantle flow paths beneath ridges and predicted that continuous mixing of melts occurs beneath ridges with high degree melts dominating. All this culminated with their tour de force published in AGU monograph 71 in 1992.

“Second, Charlie and his graduate students have also made important contributions in the field of arc magma petrogenesis. In 1988 Terry Plank and Charlie showed that chemical parameters indicative of the extent of melting correlate with the thickness of the arc crust. This surprising find was explained in terms of variations in the height of the melting column above the downgoing lithosphere imposed by variations in the thickness of the overriding crust, a model that has excited a good deal of interest and controversy.

“Third, Charlie and his students have developed a high-quality geochemical laboratory. Initially established with a direct current plasma emission spectrometer, this lab maintained the Langmuir tradition in that it was dedicated to major and trace element measurements on the same samples. Going beyond the traditional fare, Charlie, in collaboration with Jeff Ryan, published a series of studies in 1987, 1988, and 1993, reporting on the abundances of lithium, beryllium, and boron in a wide variety of lavas and ultramafic rocks. These innovative studies on light elements have had a significant impact on the community, including providing constraints on magmatism at ridges, arcs, and intraplate settings, and adding to our understanding of the evolution of ocean island basalts and their abundances in the bulk silicate earth.

“Professor Langmuir’s contribution to basalt geochemistry on a global scale, his quantitative approach to combined major and trace element studies, and his application of these chemical observations to developing physical models of melting and melt extraction place him among the leading international workers in this field. A number of his graduate students have gone on to establish themselves as distinguished scientists in various universities. There are very few scientists working in these fields accorded the universal respect that Charlie has gained. In the words of Claude Allegre, and I am sure they are shared by those of us here, Charlie is an imaginative and extremely bright scientist, and also a perfect gentleman.’ It gives me great pleasure to present to you the Bowen medalist for 1996, Charlie Langmuir.”

William McDonough, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.

Response

“Thanks very much, Bill, for those generous comments. I am very grateful to receive the Bowen award from the Volcanology, Geochemistry, and Petrology section, particularly so since I have such high regard for the past recipients, many of whom are my scientific heros. I feel fortunate to be one of their number.

“One of the advantages of receiving an award like this is that it leads to reflection on how it happened, and an appreciation for all the people who helped: a mentor like Gil Hanson, gifted students, generous and patient colleagues, stimulating and contentious postdocs, and those who were willing to take the time from their busy lives to write supporting letters. Of course, I owe an enormous amount to my wife, Diane, who was able to hold our home together, and give me the flexibility and time that creative science requires. Adequate thanks to all these people would take up all of the time available, because the thanks are long and each one is a special case.

“There is one specific debt that I would like to acknowledge at more length, however, and that is my debt to my parents, who are present here tonight. When I was a boy, my father played at science with me: working with Cartesian divers, dry ice, and liquid nitrogen; seeing how the tone of a flute would change if you blew CO2through it; growing crystals; and making simple instruments. The combination of fun, amazement, and analysis that my father conveyed was a source of frustration to my grade school science teachers, because I knew that science was a lot more fun and interesting than the boring books we were reading. To this day, I feel that I learned more from those very early experiences concerning what science was and how to go about it than from all my schooling until graduate school. The debt to my mother is more subtle, but somehow she conveyed that exploration was infinite, that a sense of humor was essential, and that there was no sense in feeling limited, even if you were. I feel very much that many of the good things that have happened to me come directly from their influence.

“In general, I feel somewhat uncomfortable with awards of this kind, because of the way that I find science happens. For me, ideas sometimes miraculously come together in discussion in front of a whiteboard, and without the questions from and interaction with the other person, nothing would happen. On a very broad scale, ideas often appear to different people at the same time, because that is the natural evolution of the field. That is why, I think, some of the most important developments have us reacting with Of course! I knew that!’ because the idea was there in the scientific atmosphere, just waiting to crystallize. Moreover, in each specific instance, ideas often appear because of the subtle chemical interaction between two people confronting a problem together, or going over a paper in a seminar, or even listening to a talk on an apparently unrelated subject. I view this award as being the result of those interactions, and hence it is shared in a real sense with the large number of people I have worked or interacted with over the years.

“The work for which this award is given came about from a series of bizarre accidents. I took only a few geology courses as an undergraduate at Harvard and spent most of my time doing theater. The most daunting and boring course I took was petrology/mineralogy, from Thompson and Burnham. I went sporadically, and there was always this one student sitting in the middle of the second row, with 10 or 20 kilograms of notes and notebooks piled around him. The lectures were an arcane dialogue between the professors and this dedicated individual, some guy named Stolper. I knew from this experience that although I liked geology, petrology was no field for me. It was only much later, actually, when reading Bowen, that I came to appreciate the beauty of the field.

“After a year pursuing a career in theater, I went to graduate school in the one place that had been willing to accept me and defer admission: The State University of New York at Stony Brook. I wanted to study either geomorphology, because you could see what was happening, or economic geology, because the minerals were pretty, but to my surprise found no one in these fields in this small department. I liked Gil Hanson’s geochemistry course, but Ted Bence was the one with some funding, so we compromised and I worked in Gil’s lab on Ted’s rocks: ocean ridge basalts. No subject could have had less promise—fine-grained black rocks that were all the same, with no pretty minerals at all, and they had been characterized already—our seminar at the time had a complete list of mid-ocean ridge basalt petrology papers, and it filled a whole page. However, Gil assured me that there are no bad problems, only bad scientists, and that with good data and thinking,’ things would turn out all right. I think one might add that it helps if the bad problem’ is a virtually unexplored frontier that has produced two thirds of the Earth’s surface.

“Later, landing at Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory as a postdoc, I was somewhat at loose ends, since there was no postdoctoral adviser and poor equipment. Henry Dick came through Lamont one day and said You know, what Lamont needs, and what the field needs from Lamont, is a sea-going petrologist.’ I was a lab scientist, and with no experience there was no chance of getting a sea-going proposal funded. Then a short time later, a Sloan Fellowship gave me the funds to go to sea and learn the ropes from a generous geophysicist, Brian Taylor, which made it possible to embark on a series of investigations of that wonderful frontier of the sea floor.

“I had no idea of the excitement of sea-going science. At ocean ridges, you can see structures that are the direct result of related magmatic and tectonic processes and pose clear hypotheses that can be tested by a combination of geochemical and geophysical methods. This leads to a problem-oriented approach and inevitable cross-fertilization among fields, rather than a specialty-oriented approach. Petrology as a field became a tool for study of the Earth. We’re after a solution to the problem, of how the Earth works, and that requires combining the physical and chemical aspects into a unified model. So instead of plotting major elements on a triangular diagram or one trace element versus another, we started plotting geochemical parameters versus geological and geophysical parameters: distance to a transform fault, axial depth, crustal thickness, and mantle Bouguer anomaly. These relationships of geochemistry to real physical observables of the Earth inevitably lead to models that tie together the geophysics and geochemistry and make geochemistry real.’ A unifying goal that now spans many fields is to find the important relationships among geochemical and geophysical data and how both relate to quantitative models of the Earth system.

“The ocean ridges are best suited to this approach—they demand it—because sampling and geophysics inevitably follow on together from a new map. The problems leap out at you from the map on the page. The combined understanding of the processes of melting, melt migration, and differentiation in magma chambers that have come about through the study of ocean ridges now are seen to cast new light on petrogenesis in many other igneous environments. So starting from boring black rocks that are all the same,’ I now view ocean ridges as the Rosetta stone’ of igneous petrology. They reveal how igneous systems work and that understanding can then be applied to other settings. For example, the work that we have done on convergent margins builds upon the paradigms from the ridge developed with Emily Klein. The work with Terry Plank showing how sediment inputs correlate to volcanic outputs could only come about because of the understanding of how the mantle melts and the global systematics of both ocean ridges and convergent margins that relate geochemical data to geophysical data and real tectonic variables. In fact, it is often only with the understanding of ridges that many other igneous terrains can be interpreted and understood.

“I consider now that petrology’ is no longer the appropriate title for much of what many of us do. We are working on problems that relate to the circulation of the solid Earth, to linkages between different parts of the Earth system, to understanding how the whole Earth functions, and to learning more about this marvelous machine by whatever means are necessary. What is most exciting are the unforeseen linkages between the different parts of the system, as we discover that all parts of the system are far more connected than we have been able to imagine. What could be more lucky than continuing to be able to participate in this accidental adventure?”

Charles H. Langmuir, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory,Palisades, N.Y.

Anderson Receives 2001 Bowen Award

Alfred T. Anderson, Jr. received the Bowen Award, presented by the Volcanology, Geochemistry, and Petrology Section at the 2001 Fall Meeting in San Francisco, California, last December.

Citation

anderson_alfredtjr“I have the honor and great pleasure of giving the citation for the 2001 Bowen Award to Alfred T. Anderson, Jr. Fred Anderson receives this year’s award for pioneering the use of silicate melt inclusions in phenocrysts of volcanic rocks to determine preeruptive volatile concentrations in magmas and for applying melt inclusion analysis to fundamental problems in volcanology, geochemistry, and petrology. A melt inclusion, typically less than 100 microns across, is a glass droplet completely surrounded by its host crystal, which Fred has successfully argued acts as a pressure vessel, preventing degassing of the trapped melt. Knowledge of the volatile content of magmas, mainly water, carbon dioxide, sulfur species, and chlorine, is fundamental to understanding the dynamics of magmas, mechanisms of explosive volcanic eruptions, gas emissions from active volcanoes, volcanic additions to the atmosphere, and magmatic contributions to hydrothermal ore deposits. Because magmas degas as they ascend and erupt, or crystallize at depth, direct knowledge of preeruptive volatile contents long eluded petrologists faced with extracting this information from either rock samples or analyses of volcanic gases.

“Fred’s first paper on dissolved volatiles in melt inclusions was published nearly 30 years ago. There followed several more papers in the early 1970s. In those days, Fred was nearly alone in advocating the importance of measuring dissolved volatile concentrations in melt inclusion glasses. Fred and his student David Harris developed equipment for quantitative extraction and analysis of the gas trapped in single melt inclusions. Published in 1984, their results were the first direct measurements of the preeruptive water and CO2 contents of basaltic and andesitic magmas. A more precise method became available in the early 1980s at Caltech with the use of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to determine water and CO2 dissolved in silicate glass. Fred recognized the value of the FTIR method and, with student Chris Skirius, analyzed melt inclusions in quartz phenocrysts from the rhyolitic Bishop Tuff, demonstrating the power of analysis of melt inclusions from stratigraphically controlled samples and sparking a revolution in melt inclusion studies of volcanic rocks. The analytical method perfected by Fred and associates is the industry standard today. Fred’s leadership, however, goes well beyond application of an existing tool to an important problem. His general papers on melt inclusions include how to tease data from seemingly intractable samples by rehomogenizing partially crystalline inclusions, diffusive equilibration of inclusions with melt outside their host crystals, boundary layer enrichment of trace elements during crystallization, and use of hourglass inclusions to understand magma ascent rates. Rigorously placing melt inclusions in a petrographic context has been a characteristic of Fred’s approach, which he has recently extended to zoning in quartz revealed by cathodoluminescence imaging.

“Many of Fred’s discoveries of recorders of igneous processes are the result of his characterization of carefully chosen samples, involving exceedingly tedious preparation and manipulation of tiny things, in order to reveal elusive patterns in nature. He has led the field of melt inclusion research because he has noticed things, measured them, and extracted information about processes others would have missed. A prime example is that of hourglass inclusions, named by Fred, which have leaked bubbly melt to the outside of their host phenocrysts. Rather than ignoring hourglasses as irrelevant to preeruptive conditions, he used them to quantify ascent times of vesiculating magma. The emphasis in analysis of volatiles dissolved in melt inclusions has been on preeruptive concentrations. Fred has taken the subject a step further and, with Paul Wallace, has constrained actual volatile content, the amount of exsolved gas at subsurface conditions. This achievement has a profound impact on determining bulk magma properties that affect eruptive style and that can be related to geophysical data on active magmatic systems.

“We are recognizing Fred Anderson for his pioneering work on melt inclusions and his leadership in this burgeoning field, particularly in the last decade. I am compelled to note, however, some of Fred’s other major contributions. Early on, he proposed a fundamental subdivision of anorthosites into sodic and calcic varieties, a distinction that is still an issue in anorthosite petrogenesis. In the early 1970s, he was senior author on a seminal paper on oxygen isotopes in co-existing phases in igneous rocks, their significance for geo-thermometry, and fractionation of isotopes during crystallization differentiation. His 1976 paper, ‘Magma mixing: Petrological process and volcanological tool,’ was ahead of the stampede that recognized that this process, neglected for decades, is a widespread and important factor in understanding the diversity of magmas and many petrographic features of igneous rocks. His publications on Kilauea reveal general processes of crystallization, degassing, recharge, and mixing in a basaltic magma reservoir. Revisiting Fred’s papers the other day, I was reminded of some themes that run from the early 1970s to the present and that were not widely embraced when Fred introduced them, but have since become accepted truths, namely, the value of melt inclusions as recorders of magma and volatile history, the high preeruptive concentrations of water in arc magmas, and the near ubiquity of magma mixing.

“Having studied his papers on Fe-Ti oxides when I was a graduate student, I eventually met Fred Anderson in 1979 on an AGU field trip to the Columbia Plateau. He and Dave Harris were in the seat behind mine in an ancient school bus. Memories of conversations with Fred on the bus are still vivid for me, along with the pain of being squished, for hundreds of miles, into a minimally padded bench seat intended for children. Fred’s visionary thinking and broad insight and his free sharing of his ideas with others came out in those conversations. My experience with this generous man has been typical. A friend wrote, ‘his brilliance is accompanied by the complete lack of ego building nonsense. He involves everyone with his thoughts and hides nothing.’ Those of us privileged to receive a detailed letter from Fred on some aspect of igneous rocks all others have overlooked, but that leads to exciting new research directions, will attest to the accuracy of that statement.

At Chicago, Fred is known for his patience with students and his willingness to give of his time. He and his wife, Caroline, for many years have been ‘Resident Masters’ in a large undergraduate dormitory, on 24-hour call for the well-being of over 100 students. His enthusiasm for education extends to giving seminars for teachers in the Chicago area and leading petrologic tours of building stones of downtown Chicago. On top of this, he makes time to be editor of the Journal of Geology.

“In summing up, I will paraphrase some words by a mutual friend. Fred Anderson’s low-key demeanor belies his exceptional scientific acuity and creativity. His published work is characterized by extraordinary originality and insight. Still, his three-decade effort on melt inclusions stands as a single, unified contribution whose importance cuts across disciplinary boundaries and time, and it is for this in particular that he is receiving the Bowen Award. Nature has given us few precious tools with which to look backward through time in the reconstruction of geological processes. A special genius is often required to recognize one of those tools. In the case of melt inclusions as indicators of preeruption volatile contents of magmas, we have Fred Anderson to thank-first for recognizing the potential of melt inclusions to disclose information, and second for having the perseverance and resourcefulness to prove their value.”

Charles R. Bacon, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, Calif., USA

Response

“Thanks a lot for your generous words, Charlie! I feel very honored to receive the Bowen Award.

“It is indeed a special pleasure for me, a geologist from the University of Chicago, to receive this award. Bowen was a member of our department for part of his career, and his student Julian Goldsmith founded our modernized department and was its chairman when I joined it in 1968.

“For this response, I thought that perhaps you might like to know how I got started on melt inclusions.

“My dissertation under Rob Hargraves at Princeton was a field and mineralogical study of an anorthosite massif in Quebec. It taught me two things: first, that minerals do not a magma make and; second, that mineral separation is tedious and messy. I tried to use mineral compositions to constrain the composition of the melt from which the anorthosite formed. My effort failed. Not because of me, mind you! Nor of Hargraves. It was only that the mineral/melt partition factors were unknown, so knowing the mineral compositions was of little use in reconstructing the magmatic liquid. Anyway, that is how I justified my failure.

“My frustrations led me to try and determine the mineral/melt partition factors by analyzing volcanic phenocrysts and their host glass or groundmass. First I turned to oxygen isotopes and spent 2 unforgettable years working in Clayton’s lab at Chicago as a postdoc. Clayton allowed me great freedom, and together with his assistant, Tosh Mayeda, we determined the partitioning of oxygen isotopes between basaltic glass and phenocrysts. My wife reminds me that I had collected these rocks during our honeymoon in Hawaii. Well, I never could get my priorities quite right! Anyway, using my anorthosite mineral separation skills, I laboriously separated the crystals and glass using standard, messy methods. Yes, there was life before the electron probe!

“While at Chicago working with Clayton, I met Ian Carmichael, who had come to visit his fellow countryman, Joe Smith. Joe was developing an electron microprobe, the machine that made my mineral separation skills obsolete. I should have panicked, I think. First, my dissertation goal was a failure; second, the skills that I developed were already obsolete! Well, Buddington had told us that this would happen, so at least I was emotionally prepared.

“Carmichael and I had similar goals. We went on a collecting trip to northern California. In the Medicine Lake Highlands we were nearly killed. It happened on a one-track logging road when I rounded a sharp bend right into the path of a loaded oncoming logging truck. It is a matter of physics that they are incapable of stopping quickly. There was no choice, and I swerved our tiny Volkswagen bug into the forest; Ian’s huge inertia almost flung him out of the car. The dust settled. Somehow the truck had missed us.

“While I was still a postdoc working with Clayton, I went to the Jemez volcanic field, New Mexico. There I met Bob Smith, Roy Bailey, Ray Wilcox, and Herb Shaw. This convinced me to accept a job with the USGS. It was a dream for me to be associated with these people and their colleagues, especially Dave Wones.

“Wones gave me excellent criticism, both severe and friendly, which helped me navigate the Survey internal review process. Some of you can attest to how useful this would be! I also learned a very valuable lesson about experimental lab work. Dave assigned me the task of making wustite. The idea was to pass hot hydrogen gas over finely ground magnetite. After a number of explosions, both Dave and I decided that experimental work was not for me. I appreciated Dave’s magnificent mentoring, and I was devastated when he later died in a car wreck.

“At the Survey, I was assigned an office space in the corner of the lab of Paul Barton. Paul also was very generous in helping me. Ed Roedder was a few steps away. It was impossible not to become interested in inclusions with Roedder close by.

“Thus I began to analyze melt inclusions, especially for their volatile content. With the electron probe I could directly measure both chlorine and sulfur. Water was a guess.

“For my mineral separation work at the Survey, I used facilities at the Navy Yard, where a number of USGS scientists had their offices and labs. There I met Paul Greenland and Dave Gottfried, and we had great fun thinking out loud together. It was a marvelous experience. Gottfried was a walking library, and he told me about Larsen’s work on magma mixing. Sadly, Gottfried had a stroke and died a few years ago. I learned a lot from Dave, and I miss him.

“A pivotal experience occurred after I presented one of my first studies of volatiles in melt inclusions at an AGU meeting in Washington, D.C. After my talk, Pat Hurley came up to me and congratulated me on an important study. He urged me to keep focusing on the volatiles. We had not met previously, but thanks to Gottfried, I knew who he was.

It gave me a great boost to get Hurley’s compliment. From then on, volatiles were the main focus.

“During my 2 years at the USGS I enjoyed a brief stay at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. There I worked with Tom Wright and Dick Fiske. They had been struggling with the compositional variations of Kilauean basalts and had decided that magma mixing was part of the story. Magma mixing was not one of Bowen’s favorite petrologic processes, but I had three votes for it: Larsen, Wilcox, and Wright. That was enough for me. I interpreted melt inclusion compositions in terms of magma mixing. This is still going on, perhaps wrongly.

“Both the University of Chicago and my colleagues there have been enormously supportive of me, both funding-wise and intellectually. Nowadays people may chuckle when I tell them that my start-up package was a $6K Zeiss microscope. But that was in 1968, and it is still my primary research tool.

“At Chicago, I came to rely increasingly on students, and I want to emphasize their extremely valuable contributions. I will single out just a few. First there were Dave Harris and Emi Ito, with whom I began to explore the evidence of water in magmatic melts revealed by melt inclusions. Harris built a machine that yielded some of the earliest direct determinations of water in melt inclusions.

“Christine Skirius came along at the time Stolper and Newman were developing the spectroscopic method for analyzing water and carbon dioxide in silicate glasses. Chris developed the procedures for applying it to glass inclusions in phenocrysts. This gave us the ability to estimate the depth of origin of melt inclusions and their host crystals to a resolution of about 200 meters. As the Bishop Tuff magma body was at least 3000 meters thick, this is a very helpful resolution in terms of tracking the movement of the crystals in the magma.

“Another Chicago student, Fangqiong Lu, worked with Andy Davis and me to analyze trace elements in melt inclusions using the Chicago ion microprobe. Initially, I tried to discourage Lu from doing some of the work she did, like analyzing phenocrysts, which I thought Hildreth had beaten to death. She went ahead and discovered the reverse zoning of sanidine phenocrysts and inclusions of anomalous magnetites in some quartz phenocrysts. Andy Davis pointed out that the barium and strontium in melt inclusions varied in a way that is incompatible with magma mixing. Our results were so troubling that it took us three rewrites, two rounds of reviews, and almost a decade to get them published. Eventually our interpretation retreated away from magma mixing to a Bowenesque concept of crystallization and sinking of crystals.

“Among the other students who helped me with our Bishop work are five undergraduates: Nate Brown, Dave Lorenz, Paulina Mundkowski, Aaron Borowski, Bret Peppard, and Joe Dufek. Their work was phenomenal and essential.

“I was very lucky to have Paul Wallace come and join me as a postdoc working on the Bishop magma. Paul made a magnificent contribution. I think that the work he did to establish the presence of exsolved gas in preeruptive magma changes our view of rhyolitic magmas fundamentally. Without his help, I know that I would not be standing here today. Paul, thank you very much.

“I want to express a very special thanks to Wes Hildreth. Wes generously shared some samples with us at an early stage. He very importantly and generously continued to keep us abreast of field relations that he and Colin Wilson were developing. Wes often reminded me that our study was limited to only a few samples. This is still true. But he led us to the best samples, and our progress depended on that. Best is better than most. We can argue that later.

“I want to especially thank Charlie Bacon for his continuing encouragement. Charlie went out of his way to mention his interest in my work on several important occasions, and he has been steadfast in his scrutiny of my manuscripts. He always makes me think, a lot!

“Before ending, I want to share a funny story about Paul Wallace and myself. In addition to our joint work on the Bishop Tuff, we also worked on Kilauean basalts. In connection with that we had a collecting trip to Hawaii. When in Hawaii I always take an hour or so to check out the hundreds of Hawaiian shirts in Hilo Hattie’s huge store. Yes, Chicago does have days when Hawaiian shirts are in style!

I got myself a new shirt. I wore it the next day, much to Paul’s amazement and our mutual delight. He had earlier gotten exactly the same shirt for himself! It was then that I realized how much we really do think alike!

“I want to end by thanking my wife, Caroline, and our two children, Eric and Doug. With me they made many spring and summer trips on I-80 to northern California. We got to know practically all the campsites and playgrounds between Chicago and Mount Shasta. We so often ended up in the mountains that my boys identified summer with snow. I had a lot of fun on these field trips, and I am especially glad that my family could be with me then and that my wife is here today.

“I thank you all very much. What a great feeling I have! Thank you again.”

Alfred T. Anderson, University of Chicago, Illinois, USA

Rose Receives the 2002 N. L. Bowen Award

William I. Rose received the Bowen Award, presented by the Volcanology, Geochemistry, and Petrology Section at the 2002 Fall Meeting in San Francisco, California, last December.

Citation

rose_williami“I am happy to be able to introduce Bill for this well-deserved honor. I’d first like to thank Bill’s colleagues who wrote him such strong letters of support: Fred Anderson (University of Chicago, the winner of last year’s Bowen Award); Steve Sparks (University of Bristol, Great Britain); Fred Prata (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Australia);Tom Casadeval (U.S. Geological Survey); Jon Fink (Arizona State University); and Hugo Delgado (National University of Mexico).

“I would like to summarize Bill’s many accomplishments, in research, collaborative efforts, and student outreach. His earliest professional work extended his graduate studies in gas and ash emission studies in Central America, and expanded to Indonesia, Washington, Hawaii, and Antarctica. In the 1980s, he began developing an interest in the potential aircraft hazards from volcanic clouds, years ahead of any serious scientific efforts towards this issue. Bill was one of the first in volcanology to embrace satellite data to study volcanic emissions and is a well-recognized leader in the field.

“With more than 150 published papers on volcanic studies, Bill has investigated multispecies and regional gas measurements of volcanic emissions, ash/aerosol interactions, aircraft hazards, distal ash fallout patterns, quantitative retrievals of ash particles, and detection of ice in volcanic clouds. He developed the first methodology to use infrared satellite data for quantitative retrievals of ash particles, size, and cloud mass: his ground-breaking work with his graduate student Shimeng Wen in 1994 formed the basis for current methods of infrared retrieval of ash particles.

“His past 5 years of accomplishments include his leadership toward merging multi-sensor retrievals of volcanic clouds, deriving simultaneous data of ash, aerosol, and gas species. He has led efforts to develop new monitoring, and analytical tools with a variety of sensors, and has published valuable syntheses of remote sensing studies. These retrievals have produced improved understanding of volcanic cloud/ atmosphere interactions, quantitative measures of volcanic cloud compositions and evolution, and advancement of a wide variety of remote sensing tools for volcanologists.

“His ties to Central America are perhaps the strongest of any U.S. volcanologist. Since his graduate work in the late 1960s, he has made annual trips to Central America, particularly Guatemala, and has published over 50 papers on Central American volcanology. For the past 3 years, he has led collaborative field excursions to Guatemala and El Salvador. In 1999, he graduated a master’s student, Carlos Pullinger, from El Salvador, who is now a leader in El Salvador’s natural hazards mitigation program. He brought one of Guatemala’s leading volcanologists to Michigan Tech this past year, Oto Matías, to complete his bachelor’s degree in geology. This fall, he hosted Dr. Hugo Delgado (Mexico) and Dr. Jose Viramonte (Argentina) as Visiting Scholars.

“Bill served as department head at Michigan Tech from 1990 to 1998. He led the development of Michigan Tech’s Remote Sensing Institute in 1998, spanning eight departments and over 40 researchers on campus, twice serving as director. He initiated a Remote Sensing Minor program for undergraduates as a means to attract diverse students to the field of remote sensing. Through an NSF International Travel Grant, he led a dozen international and American graduate students for 2 weeks to the IAVCEI Bali meeting in 2000, via Hawaii and Pinatubo.

“In 2001, Bill organized and hosted the Volcanic Clouds Workshop at Michigan Tech, attracting nearly 50 researchers from 11 countries, six of the nine Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAACs), nine universities, and several government meteorological and volcanological organizations. Sponsorships from NASA and NSF secured by Bill helped support the meeting, and particularly the 17 student attendees. He is organizing the second meeting for summer 2003.

“In summary, Bill has made significant contributions to the field in research, in service, and in education. He has trained and mentored dozens of students, and has made many contributions to the growth of volcanological sciences, hosting field trips and workshops and developing funding opportunities targeted specifically for students. His work in geosciences has been abundant and far-reaching, and he is a clear leader in volcanology and remote sensing. His leadership skills together with his enthusiasm have brought together diverse groups of scientists and operational workers for the betterment of volcanology. Bill Rose is a very deserving recipient of this year’s Bowen Award.”

Gregg Bluth, Michigan Technological University, Houghton

Response

“Thanks to Gregg Bluth and Fred Anderson for the introduction, and to Becky Lange and the Bowen Award Committee. The Bowen Award is a great honor, but it seems an extravagance given that my work is great fun, takes me to the world’s beautiful places repeatedly, and allows me to work with optimistic, smart, and talented young people. The Bowen Award truly shines brighter than many other awards, especially in my case. One award I got earlier was called the ‘Peter Principle Disorganization Award’ from a group called the Association of Derelicts and Slovenly Slobs, which I later found out included Jim Vallance, Deb Schueller, and Jim Paces. This is way better!

“I want to mention some of the many people I have met in and around volcanoes who have inspired me. In 1966, Dick Stoiber saw me at Dartmouth and asked what I’d do after graduation, 6 weeks away. I knew I didn’t want to visit Vietnam. Dick said I could work climbing seven Central American volcanoes. He gave me books and a student deferment. Dick was a dauntless man who had such passion that you had to work hard for him. He explored all the possibilities of being a senior professor. Other inspiring professors, Bob Decker and Bob Reynolds, and fellow students Al Eggers, Mike Carr, and Paul Taylor were significant.

“Next I moved to Houghton, a hard-rock town, where my family was happy and where I have creative colleagues and students. Michigan Tech tries to be a place where engineers are respected and valued. One result of the elevation of engineers is that non-engineers bond. Disciplinary boundaries are low. Engineers have wonderful equipment in clean, well-organized labs that are underutilized and can be borrowed by scientists with strange applications. My colleagues at Michigan Tech now include Gregg Bluth, Matt Watson, Alex Kostinski, Jimmy Diehl, Rich Honrath, Raymond Shaw, and Will Cantrell.

“I worked in Central America since Dartmouth days. In 1973–1975, Sam Bonis made huge collections of ashes from Fuego, and with these I worked with Fred Anderson and Steve Self. I learned Fred’s thoughts about gases, subduction zones, and melt inclusions, and worked with Laurel Woodruff. In 1978, I went to NCAR to learn about the atmosphere. Working under Paul Crutzen and Dick Cadle and with Bill Zinzer, we did a series of volcano aircraft samplings. I met Raymond Chuan, Bill Zoller, and Barry Huebert.

“The 1980s were great! Mount St. Helens in 1980–1982 amounted to the best learning experience of my life. We had meetings with 30 to 80 scientists daily discussing real-time data. I met Rick Hoblitt, Don Swanson, Kathy Cashman, and many more. In January 1983, led by Servando de la Cruz-Reyna, I went with Bill Zoller and Tom Casadevall into the newly-formed, H2S-rich crater of El Chichon. Then to Toba Caldera with Craig Chesner and George Walker and to Erebus and White Island with Phillip Kyle. Next it was Merapi and Augustine with Bob Symonds, and Costa Rica and Chile with Bob Andres. Kilauea began its current eruption in 1983, and I learned from Paul Greenland and Torrie Chartier, whose work at HVO was followed by a successful career as head of an all-woman diamond exploration company and a bio in Worth Magazine.

“In the late 1980s, I got into satellite-based remote sensing. Steve Self, Lori Glaze, and Rick Holasek helped—at first we knew almost nothing! Grant Heiken and others at Los Alamos triggered an aircraft mission to Augustine volcano, and I got lots of data from Gary Hufford. Shiming Wen made it possible for me to begin to understand radiative transfer. Dave Schneider really loved remote sensing from the beginning and always had snacks handy. The NASA EOS volcanology team headed by Pete Mouginis-Mark allowed a great expansion of colleagues who shared an interest in remote sensing: Peter Francis, Joy Crisp, Andy Harris, Arlin Krueger, Fred Prata, Vince Realmuto, Howard Zebker, and Luke Flynn. It lasted 12 years, and this networking supported an army of students. This triggered a great interdisciplinary experiment in a shared remote sensing lab where a diversity of students Dave Schneider, Judy Budd, Drew Pilant, and Mike Dolan worked together and truly taught each other.

“I undertook an administrative career as department chair. I used Stoiber’s lessons here: spend all the money ASAP and ask for more; hire new people as often as possible; keep a lot of balls in the air and they’ll be confused, etc. I conclude that no one should do that job for too long. Then I spent a rejuvenating year-long leave at Bristol, which has become the world’s leading volcanology program. Steve Sparks is a great leader, and he put me in an office with Oleg Melnik, Oded Navon, Eliza Calder, and Anne Marie Lejeune. I visited Montserrat and the Bristol field class in Santorini and worked with Gerald Ernst. I also met Clive Oppenheimer, Hans Graf, and Christiane Textor.

“Most recently, I have facilitated increased work in El Salvador and Guatemala and local colleagues in those countries including Carlos Pullinger and Otoniel Matías. We have done workshops on remote sensing of volcanic clouds and eruptions, where I met George Stephens, Andrew Tupper, Rene Servrandrx, Jose Viramonte, and many more.

“It is time to shut up, but I also mention my family—Nanno, Chris, and Jason, who put up with a lot of absences during my many great field trips and loved me anyway. And I thank again my many students that I haven’t mentioned yet, but haven’t forgotten—Mike Conway, Gari Mayberry, Bill Capaul, Dave Delene, Sid Halsor, Tony Longo, Paula Peterson, Colleen Riley, Greg Hahn, Gordon Keating, Gerardo Carrasco, Glen Johns, Barry Green, John Graf, Emily Constantine, Roger Barlow, Darrell Sofield, Dennis Martin, Paul Kimberly, Tianxu Yu, and John Drexler. Students have always taught me more than I have taught them. Rick Wunderman stands out as the student who taught me most, especially that the journey is more important than the destination. Thanks again, and cheers to all.”

William I. Rose, Michigan Technological University, Houghton

Valley Receives 2003 N.L. Bowen Award

John W. Valley received the Bowen Award, presented by the Volcanology, Geochemistry, and Petrology Section at the 2003 Fall Meeting in San Francisco, California, last December.

Citation

valley_johnw“Jim O’Neil and I are particularly pleased to present Professor John Valley, of the University of Wisconsin, for this year’s Bowen Award. We have known John for about 25 years, first as a graduate student, and now as colleague and good friend. We nominated him in recognition of his recent work on zircons from early Archean rocks of northwestern Australia, which provides documentation of previously missing Earth history with evidence for an early ocean and a relatively cool history during the Hadean Eon. John has also published a major review on oxygen isotope variations of magmatic zircons preserved through geologic time, as a result of which he proclaims that ‘zircons are forever.’

“John’s research interests are exceedingly broad, although most involve stable isotope measurements of materials involved in diverse Earth and planetary processes. In the last 5 years, he has authored or co-authored papers on a wide variety of topics, such as the early Archean history of the Earth, Martian meteorites and their association with possible life forms, sedimentary basin flow regimes, geochemistry of ocean island and continental volcanic rocks, mammalian paleodiets, characterization of biogenic magnetite, and authigenic and diagenetic minerals, and has conducted ongoing projects focused on his longstanding interests related to fluid flow. John published a major review paper on the use of the ion microprobe to obtain stable isotope ratios of natural materials, and he edited and contributed to several books on stable isotope geochemistry that are widely cited and consulted. His work continues to draw a great deal of attention both here and abroad. His productivity has continued unabated despite his many administrative obligations in professional service to the University of Wisconsin, as well as to many national and international organizations.

“Professors Don DePaolo of the University of California, Berkeley, Colin Graham from the University of Edinburgh, and Ed Stolper of CalTech provided glowing letters of recommendation on John’s behalf. It is evident from these recommendations and John’s vita that he is a highly active and cooperative scientist in geochemistry, petrology, and related fields. He maintains ongoing collaborations in a wide variety of fields with scientists from many institutions, both in this country and abroad. John has proven to be one of the most successful of the many academic scientists who obtained their Ph.D. degrees from our department.

“John has been a highly influential colleague both in the United States and internationally. He has initiated and maintained valuable connections with professors at the University of Edinburgh and at CalTech, and these collaborations have led to major research initiatives, some of which are ongoing. He has developed a large and lively research program with many postdoctoral fellows and visiting professors as well as a continuing cadre of enthusiastic graduate students. Most of his former Ph.D. students and postdoctoral fellows are now tenured professors, which only adds to his stature. Considering the outstanding quality of the nominee’s research, the quality of the papers for which he is cited, and his productivity, he meets the criteria of the recipient of this award exceedingly well. With the highest praise, we present to you the Bowen Award winner of 2003, John W. Valley.

Response

“It is a great honor to receive the N.L. Bowen Award from AGU. It’s a pleasure for it to be presented by Eric Essene and Jim O’Neil, who have been good friends for 25 years and have both greatly influenced my career. The Bowen Award is very special because of the distinguished past recipients and because of its namesake.

“It’s appropriate to say something about Bowen on this occasion. As a dedicated magmatist, he only forayed into metamorphism a couple of times, but it was typically brilliant. I especially enjoy his terse summary of metamorphism in marble, ‘Tremble, for dire peril walks. Monstrous acrimony’s spurning mercy’s laws.’ We all know at least the first five index minerals (tremolite, forsterite, diopside, wollastonite, periclase), but fewer of us realize that, written in 1938, this phrase was also a political warning against appeasing Hitler. I think this illustrates that even the specialist Bowen was aware of what we might now call ‘broader impacts.’ We should not lose track of what’s going on around us.

“I want to mention some of the people who’ have helped me to be here tonight. There are many more. My parents first exposed me to geology and the outdoors. At age 6, they gave me a shiny new rock hammer. This was quite a lethal instrument for one so young. They instructed me, ‘don’t stick the pointy part into your forehead,’ and we visited gem pegmatites in Maine and hiked the White Mountains of New Hampshire. This influenced me to go to Dartmouth, where I was fortunate to study with Dick Stoiber and to spend a month with him in Guatemala.

“I went to Michigan for graduate school still thinking about andesite volcanoes. But Eric Essene convinced me that rocks are more interesting if they don’t melt. Eric had a great group of students. He gave us equal doses of hard work and fun, of metamorphic petrology, mineralogy, and critical thought. My M.S. was petrologic. I looked for regional patterns in fluid compositions from Adirondack marbles. Of course, we know now, there aren’t any regional patterns. Fluids, when they exist in granulites, are localized. Again, I was influenced by Bowen who said, ‘to many petrologists, a volatile component is exactly like a Maxwell demon; it does just what one may wish it to do.’I took his sarcasm as a challenge to set quantitative limits on the role of metamorphic fluids and how they interact with rocks.

“John Bowman showed me that stable isotopes are a powerful tool for studying fluids, and he introduced me to Jim O’Neil, who was then at the U.S. Geological Survey in Menlo Park. With Eric’s blessing, I redirected my Ph.D. to include stable isotopes. There was no isotope geochemistry at Michigan in those days, so this entailed many enjoyable trips across the country.

“My experiences with Jim are what finally shaped me as a geochemist. He generously shared his knowledge and his lab. The isotope world was smaller then. Jim felt the pulse of the science. He knew everyone, what they did, and what were important problems. Jim also had great equipment. At night, I could run the silicate extraction line and two mass spectrometers simultaneously. This is something I tell my students never to do.

“My first job was at Rice. In 1982, Dieter Heymann, Rob Dunbar, and I wrote a proposal to buy an ion probe. I was tired of hand picking minerals. It’s probably a good thing we weren’t funded because we had no idea what we were getting into. No one did. The multi-collector instrument we actually needed wasn’t built until 15 years later. Rice was good to me, but Andrée and I jumped for the chance to live in glaciated Wisconsin on the edge of the shield.

“We moved to Madison with four Rice students. These and others have been the most satisfying part of my career. Will Lamb demonstrated fluid absence in granulite facies metamorphism in the Adirondacks; Jean Morrison proved that the Marcy anorthosite massif intruded as a high δ18O magma; and Claudia Mora worked out the complexity of metamorphic brines at Boehl’s Butte. Later, Steve Dunn demonstrated polymetamorphism at the Tudor gabbro, and Doug Crowe made the first laser probe analyses of sulfur isotope ratio. Jim O’Neil suggested using a laser for oxygen isotope analyses of silicate minerals in 1985. A lot of people have made good use of our laser system since then, including Matt Kohn, Ilya Bindeman, Liz King, and Jade Star Lackey.

“In 1989, I went to Edinburgh on a Fulbright to try out their new Cameca 4f ion microprobe. This technique offered the promise of in situ analysis for sample sizes one million times smaller than by laser, but no one knew if it would ever be accurate enough for terrestrial studies. I set a goal of 1 per mil for precision. Colin Graham, John Craven, and I worked the whole year on oxygen isotopes. We had a spectacular, unbroken record of failures. It was like lightning. We never got the same number twice, even on standards. I won’t bore you with the reasons, but I learned that ion probes are hard! Finally, in my last week we broke the 1 per mil barrier; we drank champagne and planned for the future.

“John Eiler and I have been back to Edinburgh many times, and our collaborations with Colin and John have included the most fun science of my life. Later, William Peck accompanied me to Edinburgh with Jack Hills zircons, including the one that Simon Wilde dated for us at 4.4 Ga. This was part of a larger study. We were analyzing zircons of all ages to investigate maturation of the crust. I had assured William with all my full professorial authority that any zircon from an igneous rock from so early in the Earth’s history would be primitive in oxygen isotope ratio. Of course, that’s not what we found, and the simplest interpretations led to quite an interesting hypothesis as Eric has mentioned. Now we are buying an ion probe in Madison and we are going to test our model.

“I want to close by thanking my wife, Andrée, who is here tonight. She helped on many projects. Throughout, she has given me the encouragement and freedom to work on rocks, whenever I wanted. That’s been very important.

“Thank you all. It’s been great fun, and it keeps getting better.”

—John W. Valley, University of Wisconsin, Madison

Kelemen Receives 2004 N. L. Bowen Award

Peter B. Kelemen received the Bowen Award, presented by the Volcanology, Geochemistry, and Petrology Section at the 2004 Fall Meeting in San Francisco, California, last December. The unabridged versions of this citation and response are available at http://vgp.agu.org/bowen04cit_kelemen.html.

Citation

kelemen_peterTonight we are here to honor Peter Kelemen, a leader in our field. Peter has led by the single-minded pursuit of a big idea: Virtually everything in VGP is pertinent to or can be explained by reactions between migrating magma and the rocks through which they pass.

I wondered some time ago from where this passion derived. It seems that as a young man, Peter, like many young searchers, went to India and pondered the meaning of life, in Peter’s case while doing geological fieldwork. The vision struck while Peter was sitting on an outcrop of mantle peridotite in the Himalayas. There were all these rocks, tens of kilometers thick, with dikes passing through them. How could the magma possibly traverse such long distances without being fundamentally modified by the materials through which they pass? And how could they then not leave a record of their passage?

Armed with this vision, Peter headed to graduate school. Since that time, Peter has investigated melt-rock interaction with amazing breadth and depth, through a combination of careful fieldwork, quantitative chemical modeling, and investigation of the fluid dynamic instabilities associated with migrating magma. He showed us that the ubiquitous “dunite channels” in exposed peridotites were the remnant tracks of migrating magma. This recognition has led to a wide range of subsequent developments in fields that include ophiolite field studies, the fluid dynamics of melt migration, the chemical consequences of melt migration, and U-series disequilibria.

To investigate these problems, Peter was also walking over the ocean crust, and he decided to turn his attention to the physical aspects of its origin by carefully looking at the structures and chemical compositions of the gabbroic layers. This work led to papers that definitively laid to rest competing models for the physical construction of the ocean crust. Through his highly interactive style, Peter has developed far beyond melt-rock interaction. He has related seismic velocity to chemical compositions and identified the physical aspects of delamination of continental lithosphere. He has emerged as a leader of large field programs on land and at sea.

One of the favorite phrases I remember from graduate school is Gil Hanson’s comment that “there are no bad problems, only bad scientists.” Peter exemplifies the positive aspects of this perspective. It was not necessarily that his vision of mantle-melt interaction was prescient. But Peter pursued this problem with such vigor that he has in many ways redefined our field. It led him to write papers in geophysics, geochemistry, fluid mechanics, seismology, and tectonics, to lead ambitious field programs, to do experiments, and to direct theses in theoretical geodynamics. Out of all these interactions has come a host of scientific advances, new problems to explore beyond melt/rock interaction, and the need for all of us when interpreting our data to consider the consequences of the inevitable reactions that take place during transport.

Friends and colleagues, please welcome Peter Kelemen, a scientist who has redefined the way we think, and one of the most productive and influential contributors to our field in the past five years.

Charlie Langmuir, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.

Response

As a graduate student, I imagined that I was engaged in a scientific discussion with Norman Bowen, so it feels like the pinnacle of success to be associated with Bowen in this way.

I have a habit of seeking out father figures such as Bowen. I have an excellent real father, who is here tonight. A refugee from both Hungarian Nazis and Communists, but a lover of European culture, my father taught me by example never to join any political groups, but to appreciate what the world has to offer.

In 1980, mapping in the Himalaya, I saw felsic intrusions cutting peridotite. I was inspired with a vision: Reaction between felsic magmas and the mantle would solve the “andesite problem” posed by Bowen and Fenner! I didn’t realize that if there still was an andesite problem in 1980, it was that there were too many solutions.

Bernard Evans is The Expert on peridotite metamorphism, so I went to Seattle. There I found many father figures, including Mark Ghiorso and Stu McCallum as well as Bernard. At the University of Washington, I could develop my “andesite inspiration” without confronting other hypotheses directly. When I emerged, I had something of my own.

Also in 1980, I joined a company specializing in “extreme terrain mineral exploration.” My longstanding business partner, Geoff Radford, lived simply to do every job right. If he said yes to something, he was totally committed. I have tried to emulate this.

For brevity, I am now going to thank people in clumps. Including Geoff Radford, the first is the tough clump. Always honest, Peter Molnar and Dan McKenzie were not formal mentors, but have been simultaneously exemplary, terrifying, and encouraging. I once told Dan that I thought most scientists don’t live up to their potential. Dan replied, “Not you! You’re an overachiever!” Nobu Shimizu belongs here, with Charlie Langmuir. Adolphe Nicolas, who exemplifies the application of field geology to geodynamics, is a fierce but generous critic of my work.

Foremost among the supportive clump are Stan Hart and Mike Purdy. Steve Holbrook, Jack Whitehead, Marc Parmentier, Marc Spiegelman, Einat Aharonov, Jun Korenaga, Mike Braun, and Matthew Jull are geophysicists who patiently helped me. Geochemist Ken Sims overlooks my ignorance of what an activity ratio really is. Gene Yogodzinski pretends to forget that I have never actually been to the Aleutians. And Henry Dick—Tough? Supportive? Fratricidal? We are all siblings in Henry’s dysfunctional family.

Last but not least, I thank Greg Hirth. We’ve done the best of projects together, deploying the Giant Tripod and BOLO, the Blimp for Onland Oceanography. Greg is neither intimidating nor intimidated. He follows his famous father’s footsteps, but doesn’t feel overshadowed. There’s virtue in exploring new worlds, even if they are thickly inhabited and new only to us. Today Greg and I presented work on earthquakes. Neither of us is burdened with an extensive knowledge of this topic, and there are many specialists. But it’s new to us, and perhaps we will find something that is new to them.

Peter Kelemen, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass.

Renne Receives 2005 N. L. Bowen Award

Paul Renne received the N.L. Bowen Award on 6 December 2005 from the Volcanology, Geochemistry, and Petrology Section at the 2005 AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif. The award recognizes outstanding contributions to volcanology, geochemistry, or petrology.

Citation

renne_paulIt is a great pleasure to offer this citation of my good friend Paul Renne. I want to describe Paul’s rigorous and thoughtful approach to science, as illustrated in a remarkable series of papers that simultaneously drove developments in argon (Ar) geochronology and contributed to a fascinating scientific problem.

One of Paul’s enduring interests is flood basalts. How do these massive eruptions originate? Do they result solely from rifting, or are the heads of mantle plumes involved? Do flood basalts coincide with mass extinctions, and if so, can causality be proved or disproved? How can geochronology help answer such questions?

Prior to Paul’s work, the Siberian Traps were thought to have erupted over millions of years, sometime near the Permian-Triassic extinctions. In 1991, Paul reported 40Ar/39Ar ages refuting this view: A key sequence of Trap lavas erupted with very high effusion rates, as expected for a mantle plume origin. Determination of accurate rates requires high-precision analyses. And his results speak for themselves in terms of precision: They are extraordinary, attesting to the analytical skill developed at the Berkeley Geochronology Center.

To establish a relationship between flood basalts and mass extinctions requires accuracy as well, for example, to compare an Ar age of a trap flow with zircon ages of ash beds near the extinction boundary. But Ar ages suffer from complications that can cause inaccuracy, and in his work on the Permian-Triassic boundary one senses Paul’s frustration with this limitation.

In the short term, he found a way to sidestep this issue, by Ar-dating bentonites bracketing the boundary. These ages show, that to within a few hundred thousand years of uncertainty, the eruption and the extinctions were coincident, permitting causality. In the longer term, Paul sought to identify and reduce systematic error in 40Ar/39Ar ages. Through compilation of numerous age standard analyses, he effectively eliminated intercalibration as an error source. From his rigorous error propagation formulae, Paul identified another critical source of systematic error: the 40K (potassium-40) decay constant. For several years he has worked to find natural samples of independently known age from which the decay constant can be deduced. This quest continues and is now having an impact in uranium/lead geochronology as well, as the debate over uncertainty spreads to other methods.

For his contributions to Ar geochronology and to our understanding of flood basalts, and for contributions to hominid evolution studies I have not mentioned, Paul Renne richly deserves this award.

K. A. Farley, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena

Response

I am especially gratified to receive this citation from Ken Farley, one of the truly outstanding Earth scientists of my generation. I am humbled to share this recognition with the great scientists who have previously won the N.L. Bowen Award, many of whom have influenced me deeply over the years.

I am honored to be associated in some way with Norman L. Bowen. I learned about Bowen’s work from my first geology teacher, at Lassen College, in Susanville, Calif. Probably none here tonight have ever heard of Martin S. Peterson, but he was an extraordinary teacher who first kindled my interest in geology.

I had many important mentors as a student—both undergraduate and graduate—at the University of California, Berkeley, including George Brimhall, Ian Carmichael, Garniss Curtis, Dick Hay, Hal Helgeson, and Rudy Wenk. I am fortunate to continue my association with some of these mentors as current colleagues, along with others such as Don DePaolo and Mark Richards, who came to Berkeley after I finished my Ph.D.

Among the Berkeley faculty who nurtured my scientific and professional growth, Ian Carmichael was particularly influential. Along with his scientific mentorship, Ian introduced me to my wife, Brooke, who has enriched my life in many ways and who herself deserves thanks for helping to enable my career.

As a postdoc at Princeton University, N.J., I learned 40Ar/39Ar geochronology from Tullis Onstott, before he became a geomicrobiologist. At Princeton, I was exposed to some exciting ideas about the origins and consequences of flood basalts by Jason Morgan. Unfortunately, the importance of Jason’s ideas eluded me at the time. After all, coming from Berkeley I knew what caused mass extinctions. It was not until several years later, when Asish Basu introduced me to the Siberian Traps, that I really got involved in this topic.

Despite working in Garniss Curtis’s K-Ar lab as a Ph.D. student, during a time in which some exciting work in dating hominids was being done right under my nose, I was largely oblivious to the topic until I returned to Berkeley in 1990. Subsequently I have been fortunate to collaborate extensively with the great paleoanthropologist Tim White in refining the picture of hominid evolution over the past six million years.

I must acknowledge the extraordinary support of my colleagues at the Berkeley Geochronology Center: Tim Becker, Alan Deino, Abed Jaouni, Ken Ludwig, Roland Mundil, Warren Sharp, and Lisa Smeenk. I also thank the Ann and Gordon Getty Foundation and the U.S. National Science Foundation for their support.

Paul Renne, Berkeley Geochronology Center, Calif.

Rudnick Receives 2006 N. L. Bowen Award

Roberta Rudnick received the N. L. Bowen Award at the 2006 AGU Fall Meeting. The award recognizes outstanding contributions to volcanology, geochemistry, or petrology.

Citation

rudnick_robertaOne sign of a great scientist is that he or she uses fundamental observations in nature or experiments to drive questions and hypotheses on how natural processes work. Roberta satisfies all of these criteria, and more.

Working as a graduate student with Roberta, I came away with a deep appreciation for the value of having data. One example of this philosophy was Roberta’s seminal paper on the average composition of the continental crust, which has stood the test of time. But coming up with an estimate of the composition of a reservoir was really just a step in Roberta’s grander goals of answering the question of how the continents formed. The problem is that this question is too vague to mean anything to the noninitiated, and to the experts, the question is ill-posed because continent formation is so complicated that there seems to be no simple answer. It is in these circumstances where Roberta shines the most.

Roberta has the uncanny ability to see the big picture by synthesizing and distilling seemingly disparate details into a well-organized and clear message. A good example of this is Roberta’s 1995 paper “Making continental crust.” Although this was a review paper, Roberta formulated some of the most important questions or controversies in the field in a concise manner. Most review papers are just summaries of current paradigms, and after 10 years, they stop being cited or are replaced by new review papers. Roberta’s paper, however, continues to be cited, a reflection that much research right now is still driven by the questions that Roberta so elegantly laid out.

Finally, an enviable characteristic of Roberta is that she’s always exploring various tools to answer her questions. She appreciates the need to be interdisciplinary: Witness her various papers with geophysicists on the thermal state of continents and deep lithospheric evolution. She also systematically explores new techniques and new isotopic systems, as exemplified by her contributions to laser ablation ICP-MS, osmium isotopes, and now lithium isotopes, all to address specific issues on continent formation and dynamics. There is thus no doubt that Roberta is one of our great leaders and communicators in the field of geochemistry.

I will end my citation on a more personal note. When I came as a student to work with Roberta, even though I thought I knew a lot, I didn’t really know how to do science. By simply being her apprentice, I learned from Roberta how to be a scientist. Roberta has been and continues to be an inspiration and role model to so many of us. It is thus fitting that she is one of this year’s recipients of the N. L. Bowen Award.

Cin-Ty A. Lee, Rice University, Houston, Tex.

Response

Thank you, Cin-Ty. I am honored and thrilled to have been selected for the N. L. Bowen Award.

Like others, my interest in geology stemmed from an excellent class, this one in high school, which led me to pursue a geology degree at Portland State University. There I met Bill McDonough, and together we pursued master’s degrees with Denny Nelson at Sul Ross State University. The award of a U.S. National Science Foundation graduate fellowship literally opened the world to me, so Bill and I headed Down Under for Ph.D. study.

Our years at the Australian National University were truly golden. With excellent colleagues, unsurpassed analytical equipment, and a cadre of fellow graduate students who were doing exciting research (and really knew how to party) we learned what research science was all about. Ross Taylor, my Ph.D. supervisor, had worked with Scott McLennan on the composition of the upper continental crust and published a model for the crust composition in their famous 1985 book. After solving the upper crust, Ross recognized the uncertainties in the lower crust composition and suggested I work there. So that’s what I did, and have been working on this topic, and the implications of the crust composition for Earth dynamics, ever since.

Following ANU we spent 2 years in Mainz, Germany, with Al Hofmann and his group at the Max Planck Institute. Working closely with Steve Goldstein, I delved into Pb isotopes, and we discovered that the lower crust is not as unradiogenic as supposed, with implications for the Pb paradox, which is still not solved so many years later.

Returning to ANU for a 5-year research fellowship with Ted Ringwood, my research focus moved a little deeper, into the upper mantle. My ANU days culminated in a paper on the composition of the lower crust, with David Fountain, and a new model for the crust’s composition. However, the most important collaboration I had while at ANU was with Bill: the arrival of our son, Patrick, who has been a joy in our lives and keeps us balanced (at least a little).

My time at Harvard, and my move to Maryland in 2000, have also been productive and exciting years. Highlights include mentoring great students (Cin-Ty Lee, Matthias Barth, and Fanzhen Teng) and developing a close collaboration with Gao Shan (Chinese University of Geosciences, Wuhan), with whom I’ve been discovering the extraordinary history of the North China craton. I owe a debt to our chair, Mike Brown, for his vision for our department and who has built an internationally recognized (and very collegial) geochemistry group, putting Maryland on the map.

Finally, Bill McDonough has been my soul mate, cheerleader, mentor, and geochemical sparring partner for more than half my life. My journey has not been alone and would have been very different if our paths had not crossed so many years ago.

Roberta Rudnick, University of Maryland at College Park.