Cashman Receives 2006 N. L. Bowen Award

Katharine Cashman received the N. L. Bowen Award at the 2006 AGU Fall Meeting. The award recognizes outstanding contributions to volcanology, geochemistry, or petrology.

Citation

cashman_katharineIt is a privilege and an honor to present the N. L. Bowen citation for Kathy Cashman. She is richly deserving of this recognition owing to her unique and original contributions to the field of volcanology.

Kathy is best known for her quantitative characterization of volcanic rock textures using measurements of the size, size distribution, and shape of both bubbles and crystals. It is a real joy to sit next to Kathy and stare at a pile of SEM photographs of a volcanic rock, and then to watch her pull them apart crystal by crystal, spotting textural nuances that most of us would never have noticed, let alone had the temerity to interpret. As Ian Carmichael wrote in his nominating letter for Kathy, “It is with great chagrin that I realize that the textural features that I have observed but overlooked for long, can be used to reveal such important constraints on the cooling and ascent of magma.”

A second area of Kathy’s research deals with basaltic lava flows, and how to employ their surface characteristics to infer the dynamics of their emplacement. In collaboration with Ross Griffiths, she has pursued a variety of laboratory-based fluid mechanics studies that have collectively led to a much better understanding of the factors that control lava flow emplacement, with major implications for volcanic hazards.

Finally, Kathy’s research addresses degassing-induced crystallization of magmas as they ascend through conduits to the surface. She has shown how the interplay of gas loss and crystallization leads to a highly nonlinear eruptive behavior, with rapid transitions between effusive and explosive regimes. This is best demonstrated in her work on Mount St. Helens, which spans more than 25 years. Moreover, she has written up this research with a clarity and logic that is enviable. As Michael Manga put it in his nominating letter for Kathy, “She is one of a small number of people for whom I read everything they publish: The writing and reasoning are so clear that I always learn something.”

Kathy’s academic success lies with three of her most characteristic traits: insatiable curiosity, artistic creativity, and considerable generosity of spirit. These have also made her an outstanding mentor to students at every stage of their careers. I speak for many in our profession when I say that Kathy Cashman is a most cherished friend and inspiring colleague.

Rebecca Lange, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Response
I am humbled to receive an award that bears the name of Norman L. Bowen, whose legacy I have come to revere over the years. Acceptance speeches are, fundamentally, autobiographical and laden with thanks; mine is no exception, as I accept this award on behalf of the family, colleagues, students, and friends who have supported me through my career.

I became a geologist at Middlebury College, thanks to the plate tectonics excitement of Peter Coney. After Middlebury, I worked in New Zealand and Antarctica, where I succumbed to the ‘red rock fever’ that plagues most volcanologists. My return to the United States brought me, circuitously, back to volcanoes in the guise of the public information scientist at Mount St. Helens, where I confirmed my passion for volcanology and decided, with the encouragement of senior U.S. Geological Survey scientists, to return to graduate school. At Johns Hopkins University, my advisors Bruce Marsh and John Ferry helped me to transform this passion into the knowledge and self-confidence needed to tackle scientific problems.

My academic career started at Princeton University, where I initiated research themes that have sustained me through the years. Studies of submarine pumice with Dick Fiske (Smithsonian) and my first graduate student, Caroline Klug, and of basaltic tephra with Maggie Mangan (USGS), introduced me to the dynamics of explosive volcanism and the enchantment of Hawaiian lava flows, where my primary guide has been Jim Kauahikaua, a dear friend and gentle tutor. Lava flow distributaries have led me (1) to the North Atlantic and notorious ODP Leg 163, (2) to Canberra Australia, for experimental work with Ross Griffiths and Ross Kerr, (3) to Mount Etna, Italy, with Sonia Calvari and Harry Pinkerton, and (4) back home to the Cascades, where my students and I have abandoned rock hammers for the shovels required to explore the myriad products of explosive volcanism.

From a broader perspective, I see that turning points in my career have arisen primarily through serendipity: Jon Blundy’s (Bristol) visit to Oregon in 1998; a single e-mail from Mauro Rosi (Pisa) in 2001. I am grateful to both of them for sharing their scientific work and their friendship, as well as to my students, my UO colleagues Michael Manga and Paul Wallace, and my department head Dana Johnston. Last but not least, I’d like to thank my extended family, in which I include Becky Lange, who have provided unconditional support for all my endeavors.

Katharine Cashman, University of Oregon, Eugene.

Ohtani Receives 2007 N. L. Bowen Award

Eiji Ohtani received the 2007 N. L. Bowen Award at the 2007 AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif. The award recognizes outstanding contributions to volcanology, geochemistry, or petrology.

Citation

ohtani_eijiIt is my pleasure to present Eiji Ohtani, one of the recipients of the N. L. Bowen Award of the American Geophysical Union.

Eiji Ohtani is indisputably the most prominent leader in the experimental studies of properties of Earth materials, particularly the melting relationships and the properties of melts under high pressures and temperatures. Eiji started his brilliant career in Mineo Kumazawa’s lab at Nagoya University in the early 1970s. Mineo Kumazawa is one of the pioneers of large-volume high-pressure devices (others include Naoto Kawai and Syun-iti Akimoto), and Eiji played a major role as a young student in establishing new techniques of high-pressure and high-temperature experiments using a large-volume apparatus. His reputation was established already in the early 1980s based on his seminal papers on the melting of fayalite and forsterite under high pressures (to 20 gigapascals).

Soon after his Ph.D., Eiji moved to Australian National University (Ted Ringwood’s lab) as a research fellow (I also applied for the research fellow position with Ted Ringwood, but Ted, of course, made the right decision as usual), and there Eiji established a multianvil lab from which a number of important results were found not only by Ohtani himself but also by Tetsuo Irifune and Takumi Kato. After coming back from ANU, Eiji built two high-pressure labs in Japan, first at Matsuyama (Ehime University) and next at Sendai (Tohoku University), and started an even more impressive and productive career. He has established an “army” of students and postdocs (his “army” is so big that I often wonder if it is “constitutional”) and has conducted a truly impressive series of experimental studies not only on melts and melting relationships but also on other related topics such as the stability of hydrous phases, kinetics of phase transformation, diffusion of ions under high pressures, etc. In fact, it is impossible to write a paper on melting or melts in the deep Earth without citing Eiji Ohtani’s papers. Therefore Eiji’s contributions fit very nicely with the description of the Bowen Award: a series of papers which, taken together, constitute “an outstanding contribution to volcanology, geochemistry and petrology.”

Eiji is full of energy, and I do not see any sign of him slowing down in his scientific activities. At the same time, he is a quiet and modest person. I am really pleased that AGU has recognized his fundamental contributions to volcanology, geochemistry, and petrology by awarding him the Bowen Award. Congratulations, Ohtani-san!

Shun-Ichiro Karato, Yale University, New Haven, Conn

Response

Thank you, Shun-Ichiro Karato, for your warm and generous citation. It is my great pleasure to receive the award that bears the name of Norman L. Bowen, who is the real pioneer and hero in Earth science.

As an undergraduate student at Tohoku University, I visited Hokkaido, Japan, in 1972 for a field survey of the Horoman ultramafic complex supervised by Ken-Ichiro Aoki, one of the pioneers in upper mantle petrology. I was so impressed by the beautiful and fresh peridotite outcrops, and I wanted to understand the mystery operating in the Earth’s deep interior. Since I was assured that high-pressure works are vital to clarifying the Earth’s deep interior, I decided to study at Mineo Kumazawa’s laboratory at Nagoya University as a graduate student. This is the reason I am now working as a professional in studying the Earth’s deep interior.

I struggled to develop a large volume press during the graduate course, and in 1979 I finally successfully made some experiments on melting of silicate minerals to 15 gigapascals. The experiments could be applied to a deep magma ocean, which was expected theoretically at that time by Wetherill, Hayashi, and Kaula in the primordial Earth.

I spent 2 years, 1983 and 1984, at the Australian National University as a research fellow in Ted Ringwood’s group. It was the most fruitful time in my research career, and I enjoyed research there by intensive discussions with young active postdocs, many of whom are now working as top runners in our science community. I spent plenty of time thinking about magma ocean issues and a possible crystal-melt density crossover, a current hot issue in geodynamics. I also enjoyed working with excellent technicians Alan Major and Bill Hibberson installing a large volume press.

In 1995, I spent 8 months at the Bayerisches Geoinstitute, University of Bayreuth. I was impressed by the friendly and active atmosphere of the institution, directed by Fritz Seifert and Dave Rubie. After my stay in Bayreuth, we continued to make intensive exchanges of young people and collaborations, such as study on shocked meteorites with Ahmed El Goresy, which was started by fruitful discussions with Tom Sharp during my stay in Bayreuth.

Finally, I would like to thank all of the excellent colleagues and brilliant students of my department at Tohoku University who made fruitful collaborations in my research career.

Eiji Ohtani, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan

Carlson Receives 2008 Norman L. Bowen Award

Richard W. Carlson received the Norman L. Bowen Award at the 2008 AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, held 17 December in San Francisco, Calif. The award recognizes outstanding contributions to volcanology, geochemistry, or petrology.

Citation

carlson_richard-wThis year’s recipient of the Norman L. Bowen Award is Richard W. Carlson, of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. Carlson’s scientific career was launched at University of California, San Diego, where he helped es-tablish the utility of the samarium-neodymium isotopic system by using it in three very important ways: lunar and meteoritic cosmochronology, mid-ocean ridge basalt heterogeneity, and the origin of flood basalts. Carl-son has since worked at the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism where he helped develop some of the petrologic uses of important isotopic systems such as 147Sm-143Nd, Pd-Ag, Re-Os, and 146Sm-142Nd.

Carlson deserves the Bowen Award because he has shown how to combine isotopes, trace elements, and planetary physics with petrology to address large-scale geochemical and cosmochemical problems. He has made important contributions in very different areas: early solar system cosmochronology, mantle geochemistry, magmas as tracers of mantle processes, Archean mantle lithospheric evolution, crustal evolution of the western United States, and isotopic techniques. Two of his most recent papers on the formation of early Earth reservoirs and dating of the oldest terrestrial rocks have had huge impacts on the field of geochemistry.

Carlson has shown strong professional leadership. He has run large, multiyear, multinational, multidisciplinary continental dynamics projects with huge seismological components. He has given significant public service to AGU and the Geochemical Society and has served as a most efficient and thorough editor at Earth and Planetary Science Letters. Above all, he has been an exceptional research staff colleague.

Modern petrology has become more diverse since Bowen’s day and includes modeling, geodynamics and seismic imaging, trace elements, stable isotopes, and long- and short-lived radiogenic isotopes. Perhaps more than that of any recipient to date, Carlson’s research exemplifies this diversity.

Steven B. Shirley, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, D. C.

Response

Thank you for the kind words, Steve, and especially for the many years of enjoyable collaboration. I would like to thank those who nominated me, the Bowen Committee, the Volcanology, Geochemistry, and Petrology (VGP) section, and AGU for affording me this much appreciated honor. Scientific research is a pursuit that provides mostly private rewards through the thrill of discovery. In fact, at least in my experience, the more important the findings one produces, the more flack one receives from peers. But this is the aspect of Earth science that I find particularly appealing—that the problems we try to solve are fundamental, and hence complicated and not prone to revealing their solution easily, and certainly not without extensive debate and discussion with others working in the field. Receiving an award like the Bowen provides the great joy of knowing that the body of work done has made a positive impression on my esteemed colleagues in the VGP community.

Of course, my research is greatly aided by working at a place like the Carnegie Institution of Washington, where an enlightened administration only interferes when necessary, but otherwise provides the resources and support that give their staff an unfair advantage in the research arena. The Department of Terrestrial Magnetism (DTM) also is blessed with a great group of colleagues and a strong postdoctoral program. There is no question that I have benefited greatly from my association with the many creative and hardworking postdocs, students, and visiting scientists who have spent time in the DTM laboratories. I am particularly grateful to my wife, Sonia, with whom I share tales of the day’s events, and also benefit from her insight and expertise on the petrogenesis of the many funny named alkalic rock types that I’ve analyzed. I sincerely thank the VGP community for providing the scientific forum for my career, and for this award.

Richard W. Carlson, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, D. C.

Powell Receives 2009 Norman L. Bowen Award

Tim Holland and Roger Powell received the 2009 Norman L. Bowen Award at the 2009 AGU Fall Meeting, held 14–18 December in San Francisco, Calif. The award recognizes outstanding contributions to volcanology, geochemistry, or petrology.

Citation

powell_rogerTim Holland and Roger Powell receive the 2009 AGU N. L. Bowen Award for an outstanding contribution to petrology and geochemistry—the result of an ongoing collaboration begun in the early 1980s—that has changed the way we carry out quantitative phase equilibria studies. A quantitative understanding of chemical reactions among minerals, fluids, and melts requires accurate representation of their thermodynamic properties, making a compilation of these properties one of the most important data sets in petrology and geochemistry. The Holland and Powell collaboration has produced the most complete data set of thermodynamic properties of end-members of the phases required to perform calculations on the conditions of formation of rocks and their interactions with fluids and melts. The data set is internally consistent, meaning that all of the available information has been appraised and combined statistically (in a least squares sense), yielding uncertainties and correlations. This allows uncertainties on the calculated results to be obtained—an important element of the Holland and Powell approach. However, quantitative phase equilibria studies require more than just a statistical optimization of the thermodynamic properties gleaned from various sources (experimental, calorimetric, etc.), and Holland and Powell have developed formulations for appropriate equations of state, thermodynamic models to treat nonideal mixing properties, ways to estimate thermodynamic properties, and improvements to some classic nonideal formulations to expand their domain of validity. For example, a critical contribution has been estimation of the mixing properties of complex phases such as the chlorites, the amphiboles, and Na-K dominated melts. In turn, this has enabled phase equilibria calculations to be made for a wide range of rock and domain compositions.

Although the responsibilities of Holland and Powell within their collaboration are clearly defined and complementary, the body of work recognized by this award would not have been possible without the collaboration. Their collaboration has produced 35 papers, of which 19 are authored by Holland and Powell or Powell and Holland. Six papers explain the basis for the internally consistent thermodynamic data set, describe methods to use the data set for various calculations, and provide software to enable users to undertake these calculations for particular rock and domain compositions. Additional papers describe the ever more sophisticated activity-composition models. Furthermore, a thermodynamic data set must evolve or its usefulness will diminish. Holland and Powell have been indefatigable over the past quarter century in increasing the number of entries in the data set, refining the quality of the data and the activity-composition models, and improving their software packages, as well as making it all available free via the World Wide Web.

Given the complex nature of phase equilibria calculations, the provision of “industry standard” programs—AX and THERMOCALC—was critical to enabling all of us to undertake these calculations with minimum training. AX is a program that takes mineral analyses and calculates the activities of the mineral end-members useful for thermodynamic computations. THERMOCALC is a thermodynamic calculation software package for addressing mineral equilibria problems that may be used to undertake a wide range of phase diagram calculations, including P–T projections; P–TP–X, and T–X pseudosections; compatibility diagrams; and µ–µdiagrams. Phase diagram computations for defined bulk and domain compositions made possible by THERMOCALC have enabled researchers throughout the world to make advances in understanding the thermal evolution and the burial/exhumation history of orogenic belts.

The variety of applications of the Holland and Powell “tools” is beyond belief, and the work cited for this award has pervaded our community from low-temperature geochemistry to mineral deposits geology and from high-pressure metamorphic rocks to crustal melting. Please congratulate the 2009 Bowen awardees, Tim Holland and Roger Powell.

Michael Brown, University of Maryland, College Park

Response

It is a pleasure and an honor to receive the 2009 AGU N. L. Bowen Award, jointly with my longtime friend and collaborator, Tim Holland. First, I would like to thank Mike Brown for the kind words in his citation, and also for his strong support of us and our work over many years now.

It is interesting to try and piece together how one comes to be what one is and do what one does. Of course, there have been many small influences as well as a few large ones. In addition to Tim, I would like to single out and thank Steve Richardson and Ian Carmichael, both mentors and exemplars as scientists and people. Steve was my Ph.D. supervisor at Oxford, and Ian was my boss in a year teaching at University of California, Berkeley in my first position out of Oxford. It was Steve who suggested I get involved with equilibrium thermodynamics, seeing that it was the way forward in metamorphic petrology, even though he knew little about how to go about it himself. I had little formal chemistry, but my voyage had started. I had no computer programming skills either, so I taught myself those too.

I would not be standing here were it not for Tim Holland. Neither of us would have dreamt at our first discussions at a meeting in London in the early 1980s that it would lead to such a long-standing, and certainly ongoing, collaboration. He has a great ability to see the big picture in what is needed for furthering understanding of rocks. His skill at bringing together and making consistent the huge volume of disparate thermodynamic data is difficult to comprehend. My peculiar interest has been in writing general software that therefore means that users can do what calculations they want. It is gratifying and humbling to realize that our work has had the impact that it has, and to see the way that it is used to throw light on geological processes. Thank you again for the Bowen Award.

Roger Powell, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

Holland Receives 2009 Norman L. Bowen Award

Tim Holland and Roger Powell received the 2009 Norman L. Bowen Award at the 2009 AGU Fall Meeting, held 14–18 December in San Francisco, Calif. The award recognizes outstanding contributions to volcanology, geochemistry, or petrology.

Citation

holland_timTim Holland and Roger Powell receive the 2009 AGU N. L. Bowen Award for an outstanding contribution to petrology and geochemistry—the result of an ongoing collaboration begun in the early 1980s—that has changed the way we carry out quantitative phase equilibria studies. A quantitative understanding of chemical reactions among minerals, fluids, and melts requires accurate representation of their thermodynamic properties, making a compilation of these properties one of the most important data sets in petrology and geochemistry. The Holland and Powell collaboration has produced the most complete data set of thermodynamic properties of end-members of the phases required to perform calculations on the conditions of formation of rocks and their interactions with fluids and melts. The data set is internally consistent, meaning that all of the available information has been appraised and combined statistically (in a least squares sense), yielding uncertainties and correlations. This allows uncertainties on the calculated results to be obtained—an important element of the Holland and Powell approach. However, quantitative phase equilibria studies require more than just a statistical optimization of the thermodynamic properties gleaned from various sources (experimental, calorimetric, etc.), and Holland and Powell have developed formulations for appropriate equations of state, thermodynamic models to treat nonideal mixing properties, ways to estimate thermodynamic properties, and improvements to some classic nonideal formulations to expand their domain of validity. For example, a critical contribution has been estimation of the mixing properties of complex phases such as the chlorites, the amphiboles, and Na-K dominated melts. In turn, this has enabled phase equilibria calculations to be made for a wide range of rock and domain compositions.

Although the responsibilities of Holland and Powell within their collaboration are clearly defined and complementary, the body of work recognized by this award would not have been possible without the collaboration. Their collaboration has produced 35 papers, of which 19 are authored by Holland and Powell or Powell and Holland. Six papers explain the basis for the internally consistent thermodynamic data set, describe methods to use the data set for various calculations, and provide software to enable users to undertake these calculations for particular rock and domain compositions. Additional papers describe the ever more sophisticated activity-composition models. Furthermore, a thermodynamic data set must evolve or its usefulness will diminish. Holland and Powell have been indefatigable over the past quarter century in increasing the number of entries in the data set, refining the quality of the data and the activity-composition models, and improving their software packages, as well as making it all available free via the World Wide Web.

Given the complex nature of phase equilibria calculations, the provision of “industry standard” programs—AX and THERMOCALC—was critical to enabling all of us to undertake these calculations with minimum training. AX is a program that takes mineral analyses and calculates the activities of the mineral end-members useful for thermodynamic computations. THERMOCALC is a thermodynamic calculation software package for addressing mineral equilibria problems that may be used to undertake a wide range of phase diagram calculations, including P–T projections; P–TP–X, and T–X pseudosections; compatibility diagrams; and µ–µdiagrams. Phase diagram computations for defined bulk and domain compositions made possible by THERMOCALC have enabled researchers throughout the world to make advances in understanding the thermal evolution and the burial/exhumation history of orogenic belts.

The variety of applications of the Holland and Powell “tools” is beyond belief, and the work cited for this award has pervaded our community from low-temperature geochemistry to mineral deposits geology and from high-pressure metamorphic rocks to crustal melting. Please congratulate the 2009 Bowen awardees, Tim Holland and Roger Powell.

Michael Brown, University of Maryland, College Park

Response

I would like to say a big thank you to AGU, in particular to Alex Halliday and the Volcanology, Geochemistry, and Petrology (VGP) group, for the honor of being granted the Bowen Award jointly with Roger Powell. It came as a great surprise (and a delight)—particularly cheering was the mention of it as a “midcareer” recognition! Thank you, Mike, for your kind words on our behalf, in your citation, and particularly for the way you have supported and encouraged us in our work over the years.

I would like to take the opportunity to thank several individuals among many who have been significant in my geological career. It was Steve Richardson, a bright and gifted lecturer at Oxford, who inspired me in metamorphic petrology, particularly that eclogites and Alpine geology could be so fascinating, and who taught me that thermodynamics was a powerful tool in understanding them. Ron Oxburgh showed me that fieldwork was an indispensable part of metamorphic petrology, particularly in making painstaking observations in structural geology. It was in Chicago, as a postdoc with that most superb of all experimental petrologists, Bob Newton, that I learned to trust in thermodynamic calculations after finding, by direct experiment, that they could be relied upon.

But, most important, I owe my biggest debt to Roger Powell, whom I met at a Geological Society meeting in London in the early 1980s and found that we shared a mutual enthusiasm for thermodynamics and petrology. Roger’s abilities as a computer programmer are legendary, and I have learned more than I could acknowledge here from his skills. It has been a real pleasure to work with him over the years, and it is for these, and his role in them, that I am very pleased to accept this Bowen Award for 2009.

Tim Holland, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK

Keppler Receives 2010 N. L. Bowen Awards

Samuel Bowring and Hans Keppler each received the 2010 N. L. Bowen Award at the 2010 AGU Fall Meeting, held 13–17 December in San Francisco, Calif. The award recognizes “out-standing contributions to volcanology, geochemistry, or petrology.”

Citation

keppler_hansHans Keppler and his research have profoundly influenced our understanding of the physical and chemical properties of fluids in Earth’s interior, their interactions with melts and solids, and their controlling influence on geochemical budgets and material properties, all with a global perspective.

In his research, Hans combines experimental innovation with technical skill to pursue in situ observations of critical phenomena and in situ measurements of properties of nonquenchable materials. One of Hans’s important contributions has been measuring and systematizing bulk hydroxyl/water solubility in important minerals in the upper mantle and transition zone. He combined these data on individual minerals into a model for the maximum water content of rocks at these depths. In a recent paper in Science he elegantly provided an explanation for the existence of the asthenosphere by considering the water budget, an approach that explains the rather sharp upper boundary of the asthenosphere combined with a relatively diffuse lower boundary.

In closing, let me return to my opening comment, namely, that Hans and his research have had an impact on our science. About 15 years ago, I had the good fortune to spend a year in Bayreuth working with Hans and Dave Rubie. Being 20 years older than Hans, I thought I would be the teacher and he the student. Not so. I remember clearly working through some aspects of thermodynamics as applied to our research. It was absolutely clear to me that Hans knew the answers to the questions with which I was struggling. It was Hans who was the teacher and I the student, as he patiently led me to discover the answers for myself and, in so doing, helped me embrace a much deeper understanding than would have been possible had he simply provided the resolution without my participation in the process.

David Kohlstedt, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis

Response

Thank you, David, very much indeed. Naturally, I feel deeply honored by the Bowen award, for two reasons. One is that the award is named after Norman Bowen, with whom I share many common beliefs, such as the belief in the need to carefully study simple systems and to fully understand the physicochemical principles behind Earth processes. The other is that this is an award of AGU. I owe a lot to America, and I would not be the person I am had I not spent 2 years as a postdoc at California Institute of Technology, working with Peter Wyllie and also with George Rossman.

In later years I benefited enormously from working with several people. I could now mention many names, but I will just mention two: Andy Shen, who introduced me to externally heated diamond anvil cells, and, of course, David Kohlstedt, who showed me the importance of water in olivine. When David came to Bayreuth, it was around the time of his fiftieth birthday. I looked at him and thought, “Wow, I have never seen anything like this before—a professor who is 50 years old and who is still doing his experiments all by himself!” This apparently left a long-lasting impression on me; today, my fiftieth birthday is not so far away, and I am still sometimes doing experiments all by myself—I hope that Norman Bowen would not be too disappointed about the way I do my experiments.

Thank you all again!

Hans Keppler, Bayerisches Geoinstitut, Bayreuth, Germany

Bowring Receives 2010 N. L. Bowen Awards

Samuel Bowring and Hans Keppler each received the 2010 N. L. Bowen Award at the 2010 AGU Fall Meeting, held 13–17 December in San Francisco, Calif. The award recognizes “out-standing contributions to volcanology, geochemistry, or petrology.”

Citation

bowring_samuelIt is a pleasure to recognize Sam Bowring, whose career achievements have been focused on a better understanding of Earth history. Bowring’s groundbreaking studies of the early Earth include the discovery and interpretation of the ›4.0 Ga Acasta gneisses and the demonstration of how cratons are assembled and stabilized based on integrated mapping, geochronology, radiogenic isotope geochemistry, and xenolith studies.

The Acasta gneisses, discovered by Bowring, are still the oldest recognized rocks on Earth and preserve clear evidence for its early differentiation. He was able to show that the Acasta gneisses are not anomalous with respect to either other Archean rocks or Proterozoic and Phanerozoic continental arc rocks. This interpretation required that massive crust­mantle differentiation occurred early, which in the late 1980s was considered a radical departure from the conventional view. Bowring’s original work should now be viewed as seminal in our understanding of the Earth’s early differentiation.

In subsequent work on the stabilization of cratons he turned his attention to regional studies of the Proterozoic orogenic belt of the U.S. Southwest and the Kaapvaal craton of southern Africa, in addition to the Slave craton. An important aspect of understanding the stabilization of cratons concerns their thermal evolution, and thermochronologic studies of lower crustal xenoliths were used to deduce their thermal histories, from assembly to growth of a cold, buoyant lithospheric root.

In summary, Sam Bowring is a pioneer in this field who has left an indelible mark on our understanding of the history of Earth and its biosphere. Sam, along with his students and postdocs, has amassed a compelling wealth of data that chronicles the processes and history of events involved in differentiation of the early Earth. Norman L. Bowen, dedicated experimentalist who cut his teeth on Precambrian rocks in the Canadian Shield, would surely applaud Sam Bowring’s receipt of the Bowen Award.

Jonh P. Grotzinger, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena

Response

Thanks, John, for the generous words. I met John on the shores of a mosquito and black fly infested lake in Wopmay orogen more than 30 years ago, and I was very happy to present today our most recent results from Wopmay. John, Kip Hodges, Tom Jordan, and Tim Grove convinced me to come to Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and I am still here, and grateful for my stimulating colleagues.

I arrived at the University of Kansas to work with Randy van Schmus, but before starting any work, I spent what was supposed to be 2 weeks with Paul Hoffman, Randy, and Robert Hildebrand in northwestern Canada that turned into 6 weeks, and then another 10 or so field seasons. Randy taught me about mass spectrometers and isotope geochemistry, and Paul tutored me in plate tectonics, orogenic belts, baseball, politics, and music.

Any success I may have had is due to the amazing group of graduate students and postdocs from whom I have learned. My graduate students at Washington University, the late Todd Housh, Kevin Chamberlain, Ann Heatherington, Clark Isachsen, Jesse Dann, and Mike Villeneuve kept the lab lively. At MIT, Mark Schmitz, Dave Hawkins, Julie Baldwin, Becky Flowers, Blair Schoene, Anke Friedrich, and Karen Viskupic were instrumental in pushing me in new directions, and my current group, including Noah McLean, Seth Burgess, Terry Blackburn, and Erin Shea, exerts relentless pressure on me to keep up. Postdocs and research scientists Dan Condon, Drew Coleman, Matt Rioux, Jahan Ramezani, Jim Crowley, Mark Martin, Frank Dudas, and Robert Buchwaldt have been a pleasure to work with, and together we have explored some very exciting science.

Thanks to the VGP Bowen Award Committee and AGU for this award and all those who have supported me over the years. I am truly honored.

Samuel A. Bowring, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

Connolly Receives 2011 N. L. Bowen Awards

James A. Connolly and Marc M. Hirschmann received the 2011 N. L. Bowen Award at the 2011 AGU Fall Meeting, held 5–9 December in San Francisco, Calif. The award recognizes “out-standing contributions to volcanology, geochemistry, or petrology.”

Citation

connolly_jamesIt is an honor to introduce Jamie Connolly, winner of the 2011 N. L. Bowen Award of the AGU Volcanology, Geochemistry, and Petrology section. The Bowen award recognizes outstanding contributions in a paper or series of papers. On this basis, Jamie is doubly worthy of this honor.

Jamie Connolly is perhaps best known for creating and maintaining PERPLE_X, a package of computer codes modestly billed as having the purpose of “calculating and displaying phase diagrams, phase equilibria and thermodynamic data.” But Jamie showed us that there is more. By including key geophysical parameters, he linked petrology with geodynamical modeling of planetary interiors. Jamie’s approach has transformed our understanding of the links between petrology, seismology, and rheology in such important environments as subduction zones and the upper mantle.

Jamie Connolly has also made fundamental contributions in a second area: crustal fluid flow. He was among the first to understand and explore crustal fluid flow via the dynamical approach of Dan McKenzie, Frank Richter, Dave Stevenson, and others, on compaction and porosity waves associated with melt production and migration. Jamie showed that fluid expulsion during metamorphism or sediment lithification is governed by deformation through a rock’s resistance to compaction. He showed that, for compacting rocks, compaction can sustain high fluid pressure and lead to solitary waves of porosity that propagate independently of the reaction that produced the fluid. His contributions provided the first truly dynamic insights into this complex process.

In working at the interface between petrology and geodynamics, Jamie Connolly has advanced both fields through fundamental and rigorous contributions that offer deep understanding of crustal and mantle processes. It is this philosophy that spurred Norman Bowen, who would surely recognize a bit of himself in so accomplished a scholar as Jamie Connolly.

Craig E. Manning, University of California, Los Angeles

Response

Thank you, Craig, for the kind citation. I am honored to receive the Bowen Award. An award makes you ponder your own merit, so the nice thing about it is the realization that someone else has gone to the trouble of doing that for you and decided favorably. I am grateful to everyone involved in the nomination and evaluation process, and the Volcanology, Geochemistry, and Petrology section, for allowing me to savor that realization.

How did I get here? I wish I could say I had some grand scheme, but the path I followed is better described by the word career as a verb than as a noun. I cannot thank everyone who has helped me, so I will restrict myself to three individuals who determined the main directions of my careering. The first is Derrill Kerrick, my Ph.D. advisor at Pennsylvania State University. When I arrived at Penn State I was already fascinated by phase diagrams, but I thought it was a passion that should not be admitted in public. Without Derrill I would never have come out of the closet, nor would I have learned how to water ski or calculate seismic wave speeds. The second person is Alan Thompson, my postdoctoral mentor, whose swashbuckling cross-subdisciplinary raids made me realize that petrology, geodynamics, and geophysics are intimately related. Alan and Derrill introduced me to different worlds. Fourteen years ago, Yuri Podladchikov dragged me out of my office and began teaching me how to connect those worlds. I am pleased that he has not given up on that project.

In closing, I acknowledge the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich. It attracts outstanding students who have done much to educate me; and not only is it large enough that you can find the answer to any question there, but also it is large enough to tolerate my idiosyncrasies.

James A. Connolly, Institute of Geochemistry and Petrology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

Connolly Receives 2011 N. L. Bowen Awards

James A. Connolly and Marc M. Hirschmann received the 2011 N. L. Bowen Award at the 2011 AGU Fall Meeting, held 5–9 December in San Francisco, Calif. The award recognizes “out-standing contributions to volcanology, geochemistry, or petrology.”

Citation

hirschmann_marcI am delighted and honored to give the citation for Marc Hirschmann’s Bowen award. Marc and I were graduate students together in Seattle, where he was advised by Mark Ghiorso. Marc achieved a Promethean feat as a postdoc, “carrying the flame” of techniques developed at Berkeley to Ed Stolper’s Harvard-trained group at the California Institute of Technology. Together, Hirschmann and Stolper wrote a classic paper on melting of mafic veins in the mantle. They showed that thermal diffusion into veins would offset the heat of fusion, leading to a superadiabatic PT path. This was unanticipated but seemed immediately obvious once stated.

Moving to Minnesota, Marc became an experimental petrologist and set out to quantify melting of mafic rocks under mantle conditions. Given the diversity of mafic lithologies, I was afraid that Marc would get lost. Instead he and his students delineated quantitative, general properties that apply to a wide range of compositions. The resulting data underpin much recent work on melting of two-lithology sources in the mantle.

Marc then investigated the effect of water and carbon dioxide on mantle melting, the latter mainly with Raj Dasgupta, also an exceptional scientist. Again, tackling this topic using natural compositions posed the risk of getting lost, but instead they discovered valuable guidelines.

Marc has become a sought-after expert on volatile cycling in the Earth. De facto, he has been appointed by consensus to a role that few attain, the small group whom we treat as authorities on the entire Earth system. It’s a select group, a really rare honor.

As a result of this success, achieved with grace and without rancor, Marc was called to fulfill many leadership roles in our community, for example, serving on the MARGINS Steering Committee. While generally I am not happy to be steered, I was relieved to see Marc in these roles and trusted him for unbiased, well-informed, proactive leadership.

I am honored to know Marc, and I feel privileged to have played a role in celebrating his well-deserved Bowen Award.

Peter B. Kellemen, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, N. Y.

Response

I kind of took the long route to my career, so I don’t have time to mention everybody who inspired me. Were it not for Ian Carmichael, I wouldn’t have become a petrologist. I learned a ton about rocks and had great arguments with Charlie Bacon in two summers at Crater Lake. Mark Ghiorso taught me the interior secrets of quantitative petrology, and Ed Stolper’s high expectations showed me a new level of rigor and how to ask bigger questions.

At Minnesota they solved our two-body problem even though there was supposed to be one job. Then we showed up with an infant, and still they were more than welcoming to all three. There, I’ve benefited from the great mentorship of David Kohlstedt and Larry Edwards and from a string of students and research scientists who, of course, do most of the work: Maik Pertermann, Jen Engstrom, Raj Dasgupta, Sandeep Mukherjee, Travis Tenner, Fred Davis, Ben Stanley, Hongluo Zhang, Patrick Hastings, Johnny Zhang, Dimitris Xirouchakis, Tetsu Kogiso, Ken Koga, Tony Withers, Cyril Aubaud, Paola Ardia, Haijin Xu, Anja Rosenthal, and at least that many undergraduates. I could tell stories about them all, so I’ll just say that if it weren’t for Tony Withers, my research enterprise would be a total failure.

I think of geology as the family adventure, and so I’m grateful that Donna and Naomi are with me on the ride. And I’m humbled to receive an award given previously to so many illustrious people, and I feel particularly lucky that I’ve had the benefit of friendship with or mentorship from quite a few of them. I’m even more humbled when I think of some of my peers who have not received this recognition but are certainly more worthy than I.

Thank you.

Marc M. Hirschamann, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis

Johnson Receives 2009 Early Career Tectonophysics Award

Kaj M. Johnson received the 2009 Early Career Tectonophysics Award at the 2009 AGU Fall Meeting, held 14–18 December in San Francisco, Calif. The award is for significant early career contributions to tectonophysics.

Citation

johnson_kajThe AGU Tectonophysics section has picked a perfect candidate in Kaj Johnson for its first Early Career Award. Those of us who have worked with Kaj have long been amazed by his breadth of scientific interest, the depth of his understanding of geodynamic research problems, his technical creativity in finding innovative ways to address them, and his generosity in sharing ideas and successes with students, postdocs, and scientific collaborators. It’s hard to think of anyone better suited to receive this award.

In his relatively short research career—as a grad student at Stanford, a postdoc at Berkeley, and now a faculty member at Indiana University—Kaj has addressed a remarkable array of geodynamic problems. He has examined regional tectonic processes associated with the Philippine-Eurasia collision in Taiwan and postseismic deformation in the aftermath of the Parkfield, Denali, and Chi-Chi (Taiwan) earthquakes; explored structural processes associated with fault-related folding; developed new methods of probabilistic inversion of geodetic data; and studied the frictional properties of fault zones from postearthquake transients. His more recent work has extended these horizons to work on regional geodynamic models of the India-Eurasia collision zone in Tibet; magmatic deformation and tectonomagmatic interaction in the Long Valley Caldera; and intraplate deformation and seismicity in the U.S. midcontinent. Kaj has a seemingly endless range of interests and a bottomless well of collaborative research energy.

What is unusual about Kaj’s work is the blend of geodynamic theory and rigorous mathematical and computational methods that are grounded in observational structural geology, seismology, and geodesy. Kaj has remarkable intuition about critical geological problems and thoughtful and creative ways of addressing them through geodynamic modeling. All of us who have worked with Kaj believe he is the outstanding young tectonophysicist in the country and is greatly deserving of this recognition from AGU.

 

Michael Hamburger, Indiana University, Bloomington

Response

Thank you, Michael, for the very kind citation. It is a great honor to receive the first Early Career Tectonophysics Award. I feel fortunate to have had a group of very good teachers and mentors throughout my graduate education and my early career.

My father, Arvid Johnson, taught me how to do science: how to make observations, how to formulate analogies for the processes underlying the observations, and how to carry out theoretical analyses of these analogies. His work and scientific approach inspired me to work on the underlying physical processes involved in active deformation.

I was then lucky to get to work with my Ph.D. advisor, Paul Segall, at Stanford. I could not have had a better Ph.D. advisor, and Paul continues to provide the most valuable advice I receive. Roland Bürgmann at Berkeley was a wonderful postdoc advisor and a pleasure to work with. I can only hope that a little bit of Roland’s unwavering enthusiasm for science has rubbed off on me.

My colleagues at Indiana University have provided me with an ideal setting to get my feet on the ground and establish a career. I am especially grateful to my geophysics mentors at Indiana, Michael Hamburger and Gary Pavlis.

I continue to be encouraged by the Earth science community’s intentional efforts to support and include early-career scientists in the scientific community in a variety of ways, including awards such as this one.

Kaj M. Johnson, Indiana University, Bloomington