2009 Mineral and Rock Physics Graduate Research Award to Yu and Austin

austin_nicholasYonggang Yu and Nicholas J. Austin have been awarded the Mineral and Rock Physics Graduate Research Award, given annually to one or more promising young scientists for outstanding contributions achieved during their Ph.D. research. Recipients of this award are engaged in experimental and/or theoretical studies of Earth and planetary materials with the purpose of unraveling the physics and chemistry that govern their origin and physical properties. Yu’s thesis is entitled “Structure properties and phase transitions in earth minerals: A first principles study.” Austin’s thesis is entitled “Grain size evolution and strain localization in deformed marbles.” They were both formally presented with the award at the Mineral and Rock Physics focus group reception during the 2009 AGU Fall Meeting, held 14–18 December in San Francisco, Calif.

Yu received his B.S. in physics from Tsinghua University in 2002, an M.S. in physics from University of Florida in 2004, and a Ph.D in high-pressure mineral physics under the supervision of Renata Wentzcovitch at University of Minnesota in Minneapolis. His research interests include phase transitions in minerals.

Austin received a B.S. in geology from University of British Columbia in 2001 and an M.S. in rock mechanics/structural geology from University of British Columbia in 2003. He completed a Ph.D. in rock mechanics/structural geology under the supervision of Brian Evans at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, in Cambridge, Mass., in 2008 and is currently working on shale gas at Imperial Oil in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. His research focuses on understanding the mechanical behavior of the crust and mantle, based on both laboratory and field observations.

Catalli and Sundberg Receive Mineral and Rock Physics Graduate Research Award

marshall_sundbergKrystle Catalli and Marshall Sundberg have been awarded the 2010 Mineral and Rock Physics Graduate Research Award, given annually to one or more promising young scientists for outstanding contributions achieved during their Ph.D. research. Recipients of this award are engaged in experimental and/or theoretical studies of Earth and planetary materials with the purpose of unraveling the physics and chemistry that govern their origin and physical properties. Catalli’s thesis is entitled “The effect of trivalent cation substitution on the major lower mantle silicates.” Sundberg’s thesis is entitled “Chemical interactions amongst phases during diffusion creep: Applications to the Earth’s upper mantle.” They both were formally presented with the award at the 2010 AGU Fall Meeting, held 13–17 December in San Francisco, Calif.

Sundberg received his B.A. in geology from Carleton College, Northfield, Minn., in 2003 and an Sc.M. in geological sciences from Brown University, Providence, R. I., in 2005. He completed his Ph.D. in geological sciences under the supervision of Reid Cooper at Brown University in 2009. He pursued a postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Minnesota with David Kohlstedt in 2010. He is currently a research geologist at the Exxon­Mobil Upstream Research Company in Houston, Tex.

Catalli and Sundberg Receive Mineral and Rock Physics Graduate Research Award

krystle_catalliKrystle Catalli and Marshall Sundberg have been awarded the 2010 Mineral and Rock Physics Graduate Research Award, given annually to one or more promising young scientists for outstanding contributions achieved during their Ph.D. research. Recipients of this award are engaged in experimental and/or theoretical studies of Earth and planetary materials with the purpose of unraveling the physics and chemistry that govern their origin and physical properties. Catalli’s thesis is entitled “The effect of trivalent cation substitution on the major lower mantle silicates.” Sundberg’s thesis is entitled “Chemical interactions amongst phases during diffusion creep: Applications to the Earth’s upper mantle.” They both were formally presented with the award at the 2010 AGU Fall Meeting, held 13–17 December in San Francisco, Calif.

Catalli received her B.S. in Earth sciences from the University of California, Santa Cruz in 2005. She is currently finishing her Ph.D. in high-pressure mineral physics under the supervision of Sang­Heon Shim at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, in Cambridge. Her research interests include the pressure-temperature stability of minerals at lower mantle conditions and the effect of composition.

Jing and King Receive Mineral and Rock Physics Graduate Research Awards

king_danielZhicheng Jing and Daniel King have been awarded the 2011 Mineral and Rock Physics Graduate Research Award, given annually to one or more promising young scientists for outstanding contributions achieved during their Ph.D. research. Recipients of this award are engaged in experimental and/or theoretical studies of Earth and planetary materials with the purpose of unraveling the physics and chemistry that govern their origin and physical properties. Jing’s thesis is entitled “Equation of state of silicate liquids.” King’s thesis is entitled “Stress-driven melt segregation and reactive melt infiltration in partially molten rocks deformed in torsion with applications to melt extraction from Earth’s mantle.” They both were formally presented with the award at the 2011 AGU Fall Meeting, held 5–9 December in San Francisco, Calif.

Jing received his B.S. in geophysics from Peking University, Beijing, China, in 2000. He completed his Ph.D. in geophysics under the supervision of Shun-ichiro Karato at Yale University, New Haven, Conn., in 2010. He is currently a postdoctoral scholar at the University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill. His research interests focus on the equation of state of silicate and metallic liquids using both theoretical and experimental approaches and its application to geological problems.

King received his B.S. in geology from Brown University, Providence, R. I., in 2003 and a M.Sc. in structural geology from the University of Vermont, Burlington, in 2006 under the supervision of Keith Klepeis. He completed his Ph.D. in rock and mineral physics under the supervision of David Kohlstedt at the University of Minnesota, Twin Cities. His research interests include the mechanical behavior of the crust and mantle, rock physics, and earthquake mechanics.

Jing and King Receive Mineral and Rock Physics Graduate Research Awards

jing_zhichengZhicheng Jing and Daniel King have been awarded the 2011 Mineral and Rock Physics Graduate Research Award, given annually to one or more promising young scientists for outstanding contributions achieved during their Ph.D. research. Recipients of this award are engaged in experimental and/or theoretical studies of Earth and planetary materials with the purpose of unraveling the physics and chemistry that govern their origin and physical properties. Jing’s thesis is entitled “Equation of state of silicate liquids.” King’s thesis is entitled “Stress-driven melt segregation and reactive melt infiltration in partially molten rocks deformed in torsion with applications to melt extraction from Earth’s mantle.” They both were formally presented with the award at the 2011 AGU Fall Meeting, held 5–9 December in San Francisco, Calif.

Jing received his B.S. in geophysics from Peking University, Beijing, China, in 2000. He completed his Ph.D. in geophysics under the supervision of Shun-ichiro Karato at Yale University, New Haven, Conn., in 2010. He is currently a postdoctoral scholar at the University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill. His research interests focus on the equation of state of silicate and metallic liquids using both theoretical and experimental approaches and its application to geological problems.

King received his B.S. in geology from Brown University, Providence, R. I., in 2003 and a M.Sc. in structural geology from the University of Vermont, Burlington, in 2006 under the supervision of Keith Klepeis. He completed his Ph.D. in rock and mineral physics under the supervision of David Kohlstedt at the University of Minnesota, Twin Cities. His research interests include the mechanical behavior of the crust and mantle, rock physics, and earthquake mechanics.

Caylor Receives 2009 Early Career Hydrologic Sciences Award

Kelly K. Caylor received the 2009 Early Career Hydrologic Sciences Award at the 2009 AGU Fall Meeting, held 14–18 December in San Francisco, Calif. The award is for significant early contributions to hydrologic science.

Citation

caylor_kellyIt is a great pleasure to introduce Kelly Caylor, the first winner of the Early Career Hydrologic Sciences Award of AGU.

Kelly’s career has focused primarily on the spatiotemporal interactions between surface hydrologic dynamics and plant ecology, and particularly on dryland ecosystems. While the emerging science of ecohydrology promises to clarify the resilience of ecosystems to anthropogenic and climatic perturbations, it is predicated on coupling advances in the theory of ecological pattern formation to improved observation of hydrological processes. Kelly has been a leader in developing frameworks capable of interpreting and predicting spatial pattern formation in dryland ecosystems. He has carried out pioneering studies in the feedbacks between soil moisture, vegetation pattern, and community dynamics of savanna ecosystems. This research has demonstrated the decisive role that trees play in determining soil moisture dynamics and subsequent community composition across a regional climate gradient.

Refined theories and innovative modeling approaches are necessarily dependent on improved observations. Kelly has developed methods to estimate transpiration of trees using sap flux techniques, as well as characterizing the impact of land management and disturbance regimes on vegetation rooting patterns.

Kelly’s research focuses on developing a broad understanding of the coupling between hydrologic, ecological, geophysical, and biogeochemical processes in dryland ecosystems, and he has made a phenomenal start toward that goal. As one supporting letter stated, “Kelly is an extraordinary young scientist and I am sure there is no other eligible candidate more deserving of this award.” Another senior researcher wrote, “Kelly is a scientist in the classical sense, and not someone who is pigeon-holed as either a modeler or experimentalist. Based on this fundamental approach, I find his research to be very original, significant, and cutting-edge.”

I could not agree more. For his outstanding creativity and superb combination of theoretical, laboratory, and field experiments, and his outstanding original contributions to hydrology in the early stages of his career, it is a privilege to introduce Kelly K. Caylor, the winner of the first Early Career Hydrologic Sciences Award.

Ignacio Rodríguez-Iturbe, Princeton University, Princeton, N. J.

Response

Thank you, Ignacio, for your kind remarks. I am honored to receive this award.

As with all early career awardees, I have been training to be an academic for longer than I have been one. So while Ignacio has spoken so generously about me, I would like to speak about some of the colleagues critical to my development as a young researcher.

The person who first encouraged me into a life in pursuit of knowledge was Hank Shugart, my undergraduate thesis advisor at University of Virginia and eventually my Ph.D. advisor as well. I thank Hank for everything he has done for me, especially his patience and encouragement during the many years we have worked together.

At Virginia, I learned from and worked with many other graduate students and faculty whom I greatly respect and admire. I especially thank fellow students Todd Scanlon, Vaughan Turekian, and Dan Druckenbrod, as well as faculty including John Albertson, Jose Fuentes, and Paolo D’Odorico. They all provided me with advice and support as well as inspiration through their examples.

My time at Princeton as a postdoc working with Ignacio was transformative, and the debt I owe him continually increases. Our offices at Princeton are adjacent, and so it is appropriate that this award will hang not only on my wall but also on his.

I have lately had the opportunity to move into new areas of research that are exciting but also critically important. Hydrology will play a considerable role in shaping the future of ecosystems under increasing pressure from climate change and land use intensification. I am excited to be part of this research and humbled by all that remains to be done. I am thankful to be joined by graduate students and postdocs who motivate me daily through their excellence and creativity.

I am deeply honored to be the inaugural recipient of the Early Career Hydrologic Sciences Award, and I thank AGU for its commitment to fostering a vibrant and collaborative environment in which young scientists may thrive.

Kelly K. Caylor, Princeton University, Princeton, N. J.

Mekonnen Gebremichael Receives 2010 Early Career Hydrologic Sciences Award

Mekonnen Gebremichael received the 2010 Early Career Hydrologic Sciences Award at the 2010 AGU Fall Meeting, held 13–17 December in San Francisco, Calif. The award is for significant early­career contributions to hydrologic science.

Citation

gebremichael_mekonnenIt is my privilege to introduce to you Mekonnen Gebremichael, winner of the 2010 AGU Early Career Hydrologic Sciences Award.

Mekonnen’s remarkable contributions are in satellite remote sensing of rainfall and evapotranspiration, with application to hydrometeorology. A key problem here is the quantification of various sources of uncertainty, which is necessary for rational use of the spaceborne products. Mekonnen has advanced statistical models that comprehensively describe the sampling, as well as retrieval errors, of rainfall estimated from space. He has revealed the need to take into proper consideration the effects of spatial resolution and temporal sampling to avoid significant biases in retrieval of evapotranspiration. His findings enable ensemble based prediction of hydrologic processes and meaningful uncertainty propagation.

Mekonnen, still in his early career, has also been exploring the tools of scaling theory and nonlinear dynamics to gain new insights into the behavior of hydrologic systems. Using NASA’s Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite data, he demonstrated for the first time that rainfall across the entire tropics, including the ocean, follows the scale invariance property that can be linked to physical processes. In a recent publication he established that the standard method of calibrating distributed hydrological models fails to accurately reproduce the runoff production mechanisms, despite its ability to reproduce the total streamflow at the watershed outlet. His finding calls for a paradigm shift in the development of distributed hydrologic models. His work also provides new insights into the long memory property of river flow and its dependence on spatial scale.

Mekonnen has also distinguished himself as an architect and builder of scientific capacity in Africa. He is leading a groundbreaking collaboration among U.S. and Ethiopian universities aimed at enhancing the capacity of Ethiopia’s higher education system to produce engineers, scientists, and policy specialists equipped to engineer and manage water resources for the economic, social, and health advancement of Ethiopian citizens.

I have always been impressed by Mekonnen’s unassuming, quiet style, which conceals his tremendous talents and capabilities. Through creativity, hard work, and collegiality he is poised to make many more lasting contributions to the profession.

Witold Krajewski, University of Iowa, Iowa City

Response

I am deeply honored and humbled by this award and recognition. Thank you, Witek, for all your kind words and unwavering support since the very start of my scientific career. Without your inspiration, I would not be the dedicated and passionate scientist that I am today.

There is enormous potential in satellite data for use in various hydrological applications and irrigation water management that can directly contribute to solving major developmental and food security challenges around the world. The roles of satellite data are irreplaceable, particularly in the developing world, as an alternative to ground-based measurements, which are typically unavailable. Despite these benefits, satellite data are rarely used in operational applications in the developing world. In my opinion, there are two reasons for this. First, the development of reliable satellite products for the developing world is challenging due to the lack of reliable ground-based data for validation. Second, the use of satellite data requires special skills and technical knowledge in remote sensing theory and image processing. Currently, students and professionals in the developing world are not well acquainted with this technology.

Over the past decade, my research efforts have been in developing mathematical tools and advancing our understanding of the uncertainty of satellite hydrological estimates, limitations of the involved algorithms, and scaling properties of hydrology for downscaling purposes. Building on these, my recent research efforts are geared toward demonstrating innovative and practical applications of the satellite data sets to increase their benefits to society.

This award came at the time when I was preparing to go to Ethiopia to lead a large team of scientists in inaugurating the Ethiopian Institute of Water Resources, which is funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development Higher Education for Development partnership under the Africa U.S. Higher Education Initiative. The mission of the institute is to establish a long-term academic partnership between U.S. and Ethiopian institutions to provide outstanding higher education programs, conduct internationally recognized research, and perform nationally relevant outreach in the field of sustainable development and management of water resources that will help to address African development challenges. It is anticipated that this institute will contribute toward advancing the capabilities of satellite data to solve societal problems and training the next generation of professionals in satellite data applications.

This award has inspired me tremendously, and I hope it will inspire other scientists working in this exciting field. I am very grateful to AGU and the Early Career Hydrologic Sciences Award Committee for the honor conferred on me. I will continue to work diligently to produce meaningful contributions.

Mekonnen Gebremichael , University of Connecticut, Storrs

Cardenas Receives 2011 Early Career Hydrologic Sciences Award

Meinhard Bayani Cardenas received the 2011 Early Career Hydrologic Sciences Award at the 2011 AGU Fall Meeting, held 5–9 December in San Francisco, Calif. The award is for significant early career contributions to hydrologic science.

Citation

cardenas_m-bayaniMeinhard Bayani Cardenas first came to the United States from the Philippines just over 10 years ago and began studying stream-aquifer interaction during his M.S. at the University of Nebraska. Working with Vitaly Zlonik, he conducted an innovative field observational program, sampling hundreds of points within a streambed, which he used to examine the role of sediment heterogeneity on stream-aquifer interaction. Bayani then joined me at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology for his Ph.D. Initially, we planned some field observations, but serendipitously, funding did not work out. He turned to mathematical modeling of the hyporheic zone, for which he is best known, and received his Ph.D. 6 years ago. Bayani moved to the University of Texas at Austin (UT), where he is an assistant professor in the department of geological sciences. Upon arrival at UT he continued his modeling work, returned to the field (including innovative applications of geophysical tools), added a strong laboratory component (he built his own flume), and published. Most important, he began to teach and to mentor students. The second page of his CV lists the honors won not by him but by his students.

In his work, Bayani examines the scales, rates, and residence times of hyporheic flow that are generated by a single downed log in a mountain stream, by bedforms lining the bottom of a sandy river, and by the pattern of river meanders. He has studied heat transport and ecologically important patterns of temperature in streams and hyporheic zones and has investigated reactive chemistry issues of importance to nutrient utilization in streams. However, his work does not stop there. He used his skill set to examine groundwater flow at the small scale of a few pores in order to understand how solutes are sequestered in porous and fractured rocks, leading to tailing of solute breakthrough, and at the large scale of a regional aquifer to understand that groundwater age distributions also exhibit tailing due to mixing between fast and slow flow paths even in homogeneous aquifers. A consistent theme of this work is the emergence of power law scaling of residence times over all scales and with a variety of contributing and complementary explanations. Aquifer heterogeneity is not required.

Jonh L. Wilson, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro

Response

Thank you, John, for the kind comments and your unwavering support as mentor and friend.

I came to America from the Philippines 12 years ago to pursue an academic adventure, not knowing what to expect. So receiving this citation is a surreal and humbling moment in an unlikely chain of events.

Luck has favored me often. I pursued my M.S. at the University of Nebraska because of a recommendation by Carlo Arcilla, then a new professor at the University of the Philippines. My M.S. adviser, Vitaly Zlotnik, and my fellow student Stefan Kollet were critical to my early hydrogeologic training; I treasure their lifelong influence and the foundation laid by them.

The next fortuitous event was when Vitaly introduced me to John Wilson, who convinced me to join the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology’s hydrology Ph.D. program. My transformative period at Tech was due to the efforts of the late Rob Bowman, Fred Phillips, and, most important, John. The teacher and scholar I aspire to be are due to their inspiration. My training and mentorship under them resonate in all that I do now.

I am fortunate to be part of the Jackson School community at the University of Texas at Austin (UT). My colleagues at UT, especially Phil Bennett, Jack Sharp, Jay Banner, David Mohrig, and Peter Flemings, are pillars of support. My research team at UT, especially the amazingly talented and hard-working past and present students and postdocs, and collaborators around the world share this recognition.

I thank my family in the Philippines, especially my mother, Marylynne, who continues to be in my thoughts. Finally, I thank the love of my life and the hearth of our home, Tracy, and our two troublemakers, Makisig and Mayumi. I have my dream job, but the first glimpse of Tracy and the kids as the garage door opens tells me that the best part of the day has just started.

I am grateful to AGU for promoting a supportive environment for aspiring young scientists. I am profoundly honored by this award. Maraming salamat sa inyong lahat.

M. Bayani Cardenas, University of Texas at Austin

Lettenmaier Receives 2000 Hydrology Section Award

Dennis P. Lettenmaier was awarded the Hydrology Section Award at the Fall Meeting Hydrology Section Reception, which was held on December 16, 2000, in San Francisco, California. The medal recognizes outstanding contributions to the science of hydrology.

Citation

lettenmaier_dennispI think that it would be a great challenge to identify a single hydrologist who has never heard of Dennis Lettenmaier. Indeed, Dennis is a truly outstanding scientist, very well known to all of us for his numerous significant contributions to hydrology. In particular, he has been a key player in the integration of hydrological science—with the atmospheric science community on the one hand, and the water resources engineering community on the other. Dennis has combined an intimate knowledge of hydrological processes to address critical problems regarding the spatial and temporal behavior of streamflow and precipitation, land-atmosphere coupling, use of remote sensing with process-resolving hydrologic models, and hydrologic impacts and feedback of potential climate change. The popular “variable infiltration capacity” model (known mostly by its acronym as the ‘VIC’ model) is but one exemplary product of his research creativity.

For 25 years, his research in these areas has been pioneering, innovative, and significant. There is no doubt that the quality of Dennis’ work or its impact on our discipline is unquestionable. But when qualifications for the Hydrology Section Award are being evaluated, the service of the nominees to the hydrology community should not be underestimated, especially at the level of the few finalists. In fact, it appears that Dennis is not only a talented scientist who has made very significant scientific contributions to hydrology. It is now obvious that the vision and leadership that he provided when he unselfishly stepped forward a few years ago to direct for a year the NASAs Land Surface Hydrology Program (LSHP) already has, and will undoubtedly continue to have a tremendous impact on our discipline. While his primary responsibility was to reorganize and develop NASA’s efforts in hydrological research, he championed the creation of a Committee on Hydrological Sciences at the National Research Council, something the community had lobbied for over many years. His leadership also fostered NASA’s communication with other funding agencies such as NOAA and NSF to common research objectives and collaborative funding of research grants. Obviously, this has a tremendous impact on the overall funding given by NASA and other agencies in hydrological research.

My colleagues for this nomination—Wilfried H. Brutsaert, Efi Foufoula-Georgiou, George M. Hornberger, Eric F. Wood and Is—wish to thank the Award Committee for trusting our nomination and for making the right choice in recognizing the outstanding contributions to our discipline of Dr. Dennis Lettenmaier.

Roni Avissar, Rutgers University-Cook College, New Brunswick, N.J., USA

Response

First, I want to thank Roni for his kind words, as well as the Hydrology Section and its Awards Committee. I am deeply grateful for their actions.

The citation for the award indicates that it is for contributions to macroscale hydrology, and for service. Let me reflect briefly on both.

From my perspective, the macroscale hydrology work (which really represents efforts over at least a decade by numerous graduate students, post-docs, and others, in both my group and Eric Wood’s at Princeton) began with a phone call in 1988. That phone call came from Pete Hawkins, who was then on leave form Utah State University at the EPA Environmental Research Laboratory in Corvallis. He had been asked to help put together a team to do supporting work for a report to Congress, which was to address the possible effects of climate change on the U.S. He had been asked specifically to find someone to do a study of climate change effects on hydrology and water resources in California. He asked me whether I thought I would be able to lead the hydrology part of such a study.

After brief reflection, I said that we probably could do some kind of sensitivity analysis, assuming that an isolated single reservoir system in a catchment of moderate size was selected. Pete said that no, that was not what EPA had in minds—they wanted to do the entire state, or at least the Sacramento-San Joaquin basin. I told him that there were no models that were appropriate to that scale, and I had no idea how to do the problem. But, I was a bit hungry at that point, so I said I’d try to figure something out (as a side note, I’ve been supported essentially entirely by ‘soft’ money throughout my career, so there is a certain aspect of longevity that has to do with acquiring research funding). We did in fact figure something out, which was a bit of a kludge—modeling of relatively small catchments, linked together by a stochastic aggregation-disaggregation model. The reviewers (and I specifically remember several pages of comments by John Schaake, which we printed as an appendix to the resulting report) pointed out lots of problems with the approach. At that point, though, I think the reviewers recognized that there was not much around in the way of models that were better, and the work found its way into print.

Shortly after this experience, Eric Wood and I began to talk about the form of a model that might be able to address macroscale problems—for instance, modeling water and energy fluxes of continental scale watersheds. Eric had recognized, much earlier than I, that there really was something to remote sensing, and he’d begun to think about how remote sensing data might be integrated into a surface water modeling framework. He’d also recognized that the then-emergent soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer schemes (SVATS) which were designed to replace the earlier bucket models of hydrology in climate and weather prediction models wouldn’t properly represent surface hydrology—even at large scales. He suggested that I might want to take a look at some work by Ezio Todini (the so-called Arno model), and its roots in work by the Chinese in Nanjing. Coincidentally, at about that time, Xu Liang was looking for a dissertation topic, and I pointed her in the appropriate direction. Her 1994 JGR paper, and various others that followed, lay out the form of the so-called Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macroscale model, around which a good deal of work at Washington and Princeton has revolved over the last ten years. There is no point (or space) for details here, but I think some of the distinguishing features of this entire line of work are worth mentioning. First, the model balances both energy and water at the land surface. This is not, seemingly, a big deal, except that the energetic aspect of the model, not addressed in most hydrologic models, addresses what atmospheric modelers see as the primary purpose of a land surface model—to partition energy at the land surface. Hydrologists, on the other hand, view their task as partitioning of precipitation into ‘direct’ runoff and infiltration. This dichotomy has resulted in a lot of talking past each other by both communities, a problem which is avoided when models are put to the test of balancing both water and energy. Second, the model is designed to represent explicitly those processes for which there are representations appropriate to the macroscale (which for convenience we typically take to be some number of tens of kilometers). Other processes are parameterized based on abstractions of the underlying process physics—especially the effects of variability in infiltration, but also spatial variability in precipitation, land cover, and so on. In so doing, there exists a pathway for improvement in the parameterizations, and in fact much of the work related to VIC over the years has dealt with improved parameterizations; for instance, of ground heat flux, snow redeposition and spatial variations in melt, and so on. We view the model not as an end product, but as a structure within which there is a continuing evolution of understanding. No doubt, at some point in the future, the time will come to discard the entire structure, and we will move on. In the meantime, though, the model has provided a framework, and a pathway for model improvements. At least in the realm of surface water hydrology, this has been a difficulty in the past; the model structures most widely used in practice do not provide for an obvious pathway for improvements, and the cost of discarding the entire structure is viewed as being too high. The end result has been stagnation.

I do want to comment briefly on the service citation, which may be somewhat unusual for this award. I believe the reference is probably mostly to the year I spent on Intergovernmental Personnel Act (IPA) loan to NASA Headquarters in 1997B1998, although I should point out that I also spent a year on IPA loan to USGS’ headquarters in 1985B1986. In both cases, the work I did was more related to the management of science than to its execution (at NASA headquarters, I was the program manager for Land Surface Hydrology). In various conversations with others in the research community, the tone of questions regarding both IPAs has often been to the effect that it must have been somehow distasteful to actually be part of the science bureaucracy, if only for a brief time. Nothing could be farther from the truth. In both cases, far from the stereotype of being overconstrained, difficult to get things done, and so on, I was given wide latitude in implementing new ideas. In the case of the USGS, that meant heading a review of a national water quality monitoring network. At NASA, it meant deciding the direction of a program, including writing research solicitations, and designing the review process. I had wide latitude in both cases, including the opportunity to make mistakes. Certainly, while others within those agencies had ideas about what needed to be done, I did not have anyone telling me what I couldn’t do. My experiences in both cases were entirely positive, and I’d highly recommend the experience to others.

In fact, this brings me to my closing point. One aspect of the ‘D.C. experience’ is having a better appreciation for how the research community interactss—with funding agencies, of course, but also with the research and policy review process, and with the international science structure. The latter includes, for instance, the oversight process of the NAS/ NRC, interaction of the federal agencies with Congress, and the nation at large. One good example is the U.S. Global Change Research Program, the responsibilities of which go well beyond research. The hydrology community has unfortunately been somewhat limited in its visibility, in part because there are only a few members of the community who have the experience in dealing at the interface between the various elements I’ve mentioneds—the funding agencies, the international science structure, the Academy, and the Congress. In my mind, we need more members of our community who are interested in going beyond their own research to help represent the broader community at the above interfaces. Opportunities do exist. I would also like to urge those within the ‘science establishment’ — agency program managers, heads of international programs, and others, to reach out more broadly to the science community for support, and to help find ‘new blood’ so that we are able to broaden our base.

Finally, I would be entirely remiss were I not to recognize the contributions of many students of mine over the years. We truly do stand on the shoulders of our students, and this award is really for their work. I have had the opportunity to work with a number of outstanding students, and I was very pleased to see many of them in the audience when the award was presented in San Francisco. While in no way meaning to diminish the contributions of my Ph.D. students over the years, of whom I am extremely proud, I do want to make a short comment about the Masters students, whose efforts may be less recognized. In a state institution like the University of Washington, many of the students entering the graduate program do so with the intention of earning a master’s as the terminal degree. The master’s students who have studied with me have done so recognizing (I hope!) that what is expected of them is much more than the minimum that would meet their degree requirements. In particular, they have participated in an academic research program, and the end result of their work has, in most cases, been a journal article or similar publication. I am well aware of many cases in which these students have spent countless hours ‘going the extra mile’ to produce publication-quality results. In many, if not most, cases, the resulting publications have probably had much less value to their careers in engineering consulting firms, government agencies, and elsewhere, than they have to me. They have made the effort nonetheless, and I believe they deserve special recognition, along with the Ph.D. students and staff who have helped me over the years. Thanks to all of you.

Dennis P. Lettenmaier, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash., USA

Shuttleworth Receives 2001 Hydrology Section Award

W. James Shuttleworth received the Hydrology Section Award at the 2001 Fall Meeting in San Francisco, California, last December. The award recognizes outstanding contributions to the science of hydrology.

Citation

shuttleworth_wjamesIt is a great pleasure to introduce the winner of the 2001 AGU Hydrology Award, W. James Shuttleworth. Two events in Jim’s professional career have greatly benefitted the hydrology community, U.S. hydrology in particular. The first was Jim’s early decision to change his career pathway from high-energy physics to hydrology. It may not be well known among most hydrologists (who tend not to be avid readers of journals like Nuclear Physics, Nuovo Cimento Letters, and Physical Review Letters) that Jim’s first 10 papers appeared in these journals, with titles like ‘Coincident pi-zero electroproduction in the second resonance region.’ In the early 1970s, Jim decided that representing moisture and energy exchange from forest canopies posed a more challenging set of problems, and took a position at the (then) Institute of Hydrology in Wallingford, U.K. The second important event was Jim’s 1993 move from IH, his professional home for over 20 years, to the University of Arizona.

Jim is best known for theoretical developments in evapotranspiration modeling. His 1984 paper with IH colleague Jim Wallace, ‘Evaporation from sparse crops—An energy combination theory,’ now forms the basic evapotranspiration parameterization used in many soil vegetation atmosphere transfer schemes. He was the obvious candidate to write the chapter ‘Evaporation’ in Maidment’s Handbook of Hydrology, arguably the most widely read reference on the subject. Jim’s work on evapotranspiration represents a unique marriage of instrument development (the Hydra instrument, developed with colleagues at IH, provided the first capability for measurement of evapotranspiration from forest canopies over long periods, and was the predecessor of the eddy correlation systems now widely used for this purpose). The measurements performed by Jim and his IH colleagues of the energy canopy energy balance of tropical forest canopies (e.g., the ARME program in Amazonia) led to the era of large-scale field experiments, the vision for which was outlined in his 1988 Journal of Hydrology paper, ‘Macrohydrology, the new challenge for process hydrology’).

Beyond these particular accomplishments, Jim has given selflessly to the field through his involvement in international science. He has served on numerous steering committees, advisory boards, and other planning instruments of organizations like WCRP/GEWEX, IGBP, and UNESCO/HELP that have been critical to the evolution of the field of continental and global hydrology. From my personal experience in these settings, Jim has always been a strong promoter of interests of the hydrologic community, but never unreasonably so; his has always been the voice of reason, and his counsel is sought both by hydrologists and by the broader Earth science community.

The citation for the 2001 Hydrology Award reads, for ‘Outstanding contribution(s) to the science of hydrology.’ Thank you, Jim; this is indeed a most well-deserved award.

Dennis Lettenmaier, University of Washington, Seattle, USA

Response

Mr. President, Professor Lettenmaier, members of the Awards Committee, Hydrology Section members, friends, thank you! Most sincerely, thank you for this award. When I read the list of previous recipients, I am awed by the outstanding hydrologists who have received it, all of whom I respect and some of whom I am proud to call friends. Several of them are here tonight.

Life, they say, is a journey, with departures and arrivals, sometimes winding and rough, sometimes straight and clear. Within my own life’s journey, I consider receiving this year’s AGU Hydrology Section Award as an arrival. Almost a decade ago, I uprooted my family from the country where I had spent most of my career to join the hydrological community in the United States. There is always apprehension when one makes such a move, but from the very first day, I was made welcome, and tonight, receiving this award, I once again feel the warmth of my acceptance in the inclusive country that is my adopted home.

As we walk through life, we meet fellow travelers who share some of the journey with us. I’d like to remember a few of mine tonight. Some people are fortunate enough to meet their very best friends early. I am lucky. I met my best friend, Hazel, my wife, at the start of my journey. She has walked beside me ever since, encouraging me when I needed to be bold, advising me when I needed to be careful, leading when appropriate, and always being supportive. Hazel shares this award with me.

I belong to a privileged generation of hydrologists. When I joined this discipline, it was a facet of geography, or geology, or engineering, depending on the country. During my lifetime, it has grown to become the core of Earth system science. The need for hydrological understanding pervades every other Earth-related discipline. My fellow travelers reflect this diversity and the growth in the subject we all love.

Initially, coming from the very different background of high-energy nuclear physics, I discovered how ‘to learn by example’ from the good and great Howard Penman and from my sometime intellectual sparring partner, John Monteith. From them I learned to seek detailed understanding, but then to use that understanding to simplify to what is adequate and practical. I had the extreme good fortune to join the Institute of Hydrology in the U.K., whose director at that time, Jim McCulloch, was a man of immense vision. Jim took me under his wing, and as I grew in confidence, he progressively exposed me to a widening range of new disciplinary influences. My first fellow travelers were in the Thetford Project, in which working as a team led by John Stewart, I believe we essentially created the subject of forest micrometeorology. Good friends made during that period are still my fellow travelers; I was, for instance, walking with John Gash in the Brazilian rain forest just last week.

‘Och!, ye need to larn somethin’ aboot plants, Laddie,’ said Jim McCulloch in his Scottish brogue. So I learned by example from plant physiologists and ecologists like John Roberts and Paul Jarvis, and consequently, the understanding, equations, and models got better. ‘It’s time we knew how to measure evaporation, Laddie,’ said Jim McCulloch. So we learned about electronics and microprocessors, sonic anemometers, infrared radiometers, and online and offline software and built the first eddy correlation flux measuring system capable of routine use. I hope my fellow travelers of that time, Chris Moore, Dave MacNeil, Colin Lloyd, and Howard Oliver, get the same satisfaction I do when they see the huge arrays of similar systems now being deployed around the world in Flux Net initiatives.

‘Ye need t’ talk with the meteorologists and remote sensors more, Laddie,’ said Jim McCulloch, and with that began the decade in which the number and disciplines of my fellow travelers grew explosively. It started with studies in the Amazon, where, with some trepidation, we made the first tropical forest micrometeorological experiment, working with many fine Brazilian fellow travelers, including Luis Molion and Carlos Nobre. It is rewarding to see where those first studies led. Currently, there are almost a dozen forest towers and 200B300 scientists actively working on related research in Amazonia. Understanding how to represent the sometimes heterogeneous land surface in meteorological models and learning how to apply relevant remotely sensed data became the theme of a whole series of subsequent large-scale field experiments, including HAPEX-MOBILHY, FIFE, EFEDA, and HAPEX-Sahel. My fellow travelers during these important experiments are far too numerous to mention individually, but I recall with particular fondness the times I spent with Jean-Claude Andre, Hans-Jurgen Bolle, and Piers Sellers struggling to make all that research feasible and fundable.

Afraid that I might become a pure administrator if I stayed in the U.K., through the intervention of my very good friend Soroosh Sorooshian, I came to America and joined the distinguished faculty of the Department of Hydrology and Water Resources at the University of Arizona. Since then, my fellow travelers in the great adventure of hydrology have grown to include Gene Rasmusson, John Schaake, Eric Wood, Dennis Lettenmaier, and many more outstanding scientists involved in GCIP and GAPP. I have also learned by example from new fellow travelers who are experts in ocean-atmosphere interactions in the GOALS and VAMOS programs, such as Peter Webster, Ed Sarachik, Kevin Trenberth, Roger Lucas, and Roberto Mechoso. I am currently trying to learn more about water-related policy and legal issues from new fellow travelers. However, this is a really difficult area for me to understand, so my progress is painfully slow!

Over the last decade, my favorite fellow travelers are the outstanding students and postdocs who have worked with me. It is impossible to name them all, and I appreciate and value all of them. Knowing my fondness of students, Dennis Lettenmaier suggested that I might conclude by saying what I have learned in my journey through life that might be helpful advice for young hydrologists. Three things come to mind. First, there are basically two ways to proceed, by taking safe small steps or by making risky leaps forward, recognizing that you are bound to fail about half of the time. In my experience, the latter way leads to more rapid progress and is certainly more exciting. Second, respect the established peers in your field, but don’t necessarily believe them. Finally, and perhaps most important, remember that it is very difficult to keep your own end of the boat afloat while trying to sink the guy at the other end!

Fellow travelers in hydrology, thank you for your attention. Thank you for the first Hydrology Section Award in the real new millennium. I will treasure it.

James Shuttleworth, University of Arizona, Tucson, USA